Lenin's Economic Plan after the Russian Civil War to allow limited small business in the USSR after Russian civil war. Stalin used the NEP to isolate and eliminate Trotsky, Kameniev, Zinoviev, and eventually Bukharin
Confiscations of land from individuals and the creation of large collectivized farms (kolkhoz) worked by 50-100 peasants.
“Plan” that set quotas for production in various sectors of the economy:
First Five Year Plan (1928-1932)
Steel: Goal = 8.3 million tons
Coal: Goal = 68 million tons
Oil: Goal = 19 million tons
Those who achieved the goals were lionized in the Soviet press. Those who didn’t could be accused of “sabotage” or of being “wreckers”.
Kirov assassinated by someone, likely sent by Stalin
A secret trial before a military tribunal of a group of Red Army generals, including Mikhail Tukhachevsky.
French and Belgian invasion of Germany's Ruhr Region because they weren't paying their debts to France.
Nazi party: 13 million vote; 37% of the Reichstag: largest political party
Reichstag is set on fire; Dutch communist arrested for arson.
No Habeas Corpus (arrest without trial)
Freedom of Expression
Freedom of the Press
Freedom of Public Assembly
Freedom of the Secrecy of the Post and Telephone
Give Hitler the power to enact laws without the Reichstag.
Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leaders
Germany reoccupies Rhineland
Violation of the Treaty of Versailles
Rearmament of Germany and self-sufficiency
Anschluss --> occupied due to pan-Germanism
Anschluss was forbidden due to Treaty of Versailles
After Hitler Demanded the Sudetenland --> Italy, Germany, and France meet. Germany can occupy Sudetenland, if he promises not to invade Czechoslovakia.
Hitler ignores it.
If Hitler invades Poland, Allies promise to respond.
USSR and Germany agree not to go to war with each other, and to divide Poland and Eastern Europe among themselves --> pretext for German invasion of Poland
Treaty between Italy and the Allies during WWI that promised the Dalmatian Coast to Italy if Italy joined the Allies.
Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936. It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in 1939
Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations
Franco and the Africanistas launching a coup in July 1936
Popular Front won the elections. Economic and Religious Reforms.
Guernica: testing out of new equipment and tactics: Condor Brigade → Basque city: break the will to fight
A long series of events, primarily over Japan's interference in Korean affairs but also including assassinations, bans on Japanese imports in China, and other issues, caused increasing tensions between Japan and the Qing Dynasty of China.
The first military alliance for Japan in modern times.
Russia pressuring Korea. Japan takes action to defend Korea from Russia's sphere of influence. War breaks out.
Brought the Russo-Japanese War to a close.
Negotiated by the USA, the treaty:
required both Russia and Japan to remove all troops from Manchuria and restore it to China's control
allowed Japan to lease the Liaodong Peninsula and Port Arthur from China
granted Japan the right to lease the Russian-built Southern Manchurian Railway from China
granted Japan the southern half of Sakhalin Isalnd
A list of demands sent from the Empire of Japan to the government of the Republic of China.
Japan invaded Manchuria and blamed it on China.
"Land of the Manchurians'" in Japanese. Established as an independent state, free from "chaotic" China. Last Emperor of China, Puyi ,a Manchu, was made Emperor of Manchukuo, called the Kangde Emperor.
To investigate the Mukden Incident and Japan's occupation.
Report was finally submitted in October 1932. The report admitted that before Japan invaded there was an inefficient and corrupt Chinese government in the province and that Japan had made major financial investments.
The LEague of Nations General Assembly voted on a motion in February 1933 to condemn Japan as an aggressor nation. Forty-two nations voted against Japan, while Japan voted the sole vote for itself. Japan withdrew from the League in March 1933, suffering no consequences as a result of its departure.
The first major clash of forces of the Imperial Japanese Army and the Chinese National Republican Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War was recorded in the Battle of Shanghai, or also known as the Battle of Songhu.
Japan conquers French colonies.
Open door to invasion of Indonesia
Decision to cut off oil exports to Japan by United States
authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians
Brought an end to WWI.
The Washington Naval Conference, also called the Washington Arms Conference or the Washington Disarmament Conference, was a military conference called by U.S. President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C.
series of agreements whereby Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe
Second renegotiation of Germany's World War I reparation payments
Beginning of the Great Depression
The Second Geneva Naval Conference was a conference held to discuss naval arms limitation, held in Geneva, Switzerland
Franklin D. Roosevelt
A series of programs that were enacted in the United States.
War fought between forces loyal to the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China, and forces loyal to the Communist Party of China
investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.
Soviet method to establish friendly, communist governments in Eastern Europe following World War II
Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin, and Franklin D. Roosevelt meet to discuss aftermath of World War 2
Germany and Berlin to be divided into 4 occupation zones. (US, Soviet, British, French)
Polish borders redrawn: Stalin would allow creation of a democratic government in Poland following “free elections”. “Free elections” would also be held in Eastern Europe
Germany would pay reparations, most of it to the Soviet Union. Denazification.
Soviet Union would join the war against Japan
USSR to join United Nations
Churchill, Stalin and Truman meet to again discuss life after World War 2.
USSR is insecure.
USSR wants to spread Stalinist Ideology (despite “socialism in one country”)
Soviet system is based on fear of “the other” and needs an external energy to sustain itself
USSR is rational; when challenged, Soviets will not risk war.
Winston Churchill: Europe is essentially divided into 2 spheres: one free and democratic, the other under Soviet domination
Contrasted life under western, democratic governments with that under Soviet, totalitarian systems: divided world into “alternative ways of life”.
US policy: “support peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”, i.e. communism
Support could be economic/financial aid or military aid
Committed the US to protection and reconstruction of Western Europe
$17 billion aid package to rebuild Western Europe
Revive European economies → economic/political stability
Safeguard US economy by guaranteeing markets in Western Europe.
Offered to Soviet Union and Eastern European countries: Czechoslovakia
Allied views of Germany after WW2
USSR: desire for revenge; fear of resurgent Germany; desire for reparations
France: feared revived Germany
USA: democratic, strong Germany best hope for stability in Europe; check Soviet expansion
UK: what the Americans said.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
Total Commitment: authorized the US to send military aid to any place in the world confronting “communist aggression”
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance.
CIA overthrows Arbenz
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
NATO for the Pacific
Pact between Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia
Re-establish Austria as an independent, sovereign state.
20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during 14–25 February 1956. It is known especially for Nikita Khrushchev's "Secret Speech", which denounced the personality cult and dictatorship of Joseph Stalin.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 or the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés) was a nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
First artificial satellite. Made by Russians.
an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China
NASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration
during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and the premiership of Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down while in Soviet airspace.