Move to Global War

Stalin/USSR

New Economic Policy

Approx. 1921 - Approx. 1929

Lenin's Economic Plan after the Russian Civil War to allow limited small business in the USSR after Russian civil war. Stalin used the NEP to isolate and eliminate Trotsky, Kameniev, Zinoviev, and eventually Bukharin

Collectivization

Approx. 1927 - Approx. 1940

Confiscations of land from individuals and the creation of large collectivized farms (kolkhoz) worked by 50-100 peasants.

First Five Year Plan

Approx. 1928 - Approx. 1932

“Plan” that set quotas for production in various sectors of the economy:

First Five Year Plan (1928-1932)

Steel: Goal = 8.3 million tons
Coal: Goal = 68 million tons
Oil: Goal = 19 million tons
Those who achieved the goals were lionized in the Soviet press. Those who didn’t could be accused of “sabotage” or of being “wreckers”.

Kirov Assassinated

1934

Kirov assassinated by someone, likely sent by Stalin

Tukhachevsky Affair

1937

A secret trial before a military tribunal of a group of Red Army generals, including Mikhail Tukhachevsky.

Germany/Hitler

Ruhr Crisis

1923

French and Belgian invasion of Germany's Ruhr Region because they weren't paying their debts to France.

July 1932 Elections

1932

Nazi party: 13 million vote; 37% of the Reichstag: largest political party

Hitler Appointed Chancellor

January 30, 1933

Reichstag Fire

February 27, 1933

Reichstag is set on fire; Dutch communist arrested for arson.

Article 48

February 28, 1933

No Habeas Corpus (arrest without trial)
Restrictions on:
Freedom of Expression
Freedom of the Press
Freedom of Public Assembly
Freedom of the Secrecy of the Post and Telephone

Enabling Act

March 23, 1933

Give Hitler the power to enact laws without the Reichstag.

Night of the Long Knives

June 30, 1934

Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leaders

Rearmament Of Germany Begins

Approx. 1935

Rearm Germany

Remilitarization of Rhineland

1935

Germany reoccupies Rhineland
Violation of the Treaty of Versailles

Four Year Plan

Approx. 1936 - Approx. 1940

Rearmament of Germany and self-sufficiency

Annexation of Austria

March 1938

Anschluss --> occupied due to pan-Germanism
Anschluss was forbidden due to Treaty of Versailles

Munich Conference

September 29, 1938

After Hitler Demanded the Sudetenland --> Italy, Germany, and France meet. Germany can occupy Sudetenland, if he promises not to invade Czechoslovakia.
Hitler ignores it.

Occupation of Czechoslovakia

1939

If Hitler invades Poland, Allies promise to respond.

Nazi Soviet Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact)

23 August 1939

USSR and Germany agree not to go to war with each other, and to divide Poland and Eastern Europe among themselves --> pretext for German invasion of Poland

Mussolini

Treaty of London

1915

Treaty between Italy and the Allies during WWI that promised the Dalmatian Coast to Italy if Italy joined the Allies.

Mussolini named Prime Minister of Italy

October 1922

Italian Invasion of Ethiopia

Approx. 1934 - Approx. 1935

Rome-Berlin Axis (Pact of Steel)

1936

Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936. It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in 1939

Italy expelled from League of Nations

1937

End of the Spanish Civil War

April 1, 1939

Franco

Foundation of Second Spanish Republic

1931

Formation of the Popular Front

January 1936

Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations

Launch of Coup against the Republic

1936

Franco and the Africanistas launching a coup in July 1936

Assassination of Sotelo

July 13, 1936

Election of 1936

November 3, 1936

Popular Front won the elections. Economic and Religious Reforms.

Bombing of Guernica

April 26, 1937

Guernica: testing out of new equipment and tactics: Condor Brigade → Basque city: break the will to fight

Japan

First Sino-Japanese War

1 August 1894 - 17 April 1895

A long series of events, primarily over Japan's interference in Korean affairs but also including assassinations, bans on Japanese imports in China, and other issues, caused increasing tensions between Japan and the Qing Dynasty of China.

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Approx. 1902 - Approx. 1923

The first military alliance for Japan in modern times.

Russo Japanese War

Approx. 1904 - Approx. 1905

Russia pressuring Korea. Japan takes action to defend Korea from Russia's sphere of influence. War breaks out.

Treaty of Portsmouth

1905

Brought the Russo-Japanese War to a close.
Negotiated by the USA, the treaty:
required both Russia and Japan to remove all troops from Manchuria and restore it to China's control
allowed Japan to lease the Liaodong Peninsula and Port Arthur from China
granted Japan the right to lease the Russian-built Southern Manchurian Railway from China
granted Japan the southern half of Sakhalin Isalnd

21 Demands from Japan

1915

A list of demands sent from the Empire of Japan to the government of the Republic of China.

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

Approx. 1931 - Approx. 1932

Japan invaded Manchuria and blamed it on China.

Establishment of Manchukuo

1932

"Land of the Manchurians'" in Japanese. Established as an independent state, free from "chaotic" China. Last Emperor of China, Puyi ,a Manchu, was made Emperor of Manchukuo, called the Kangde Emperor.

Lytton Commission

Approx. January 1932

To investigate the Mukden Incident and Japan's occupation.
Report was finally submitted in October 1932. The report admitted that before Japan invaded there was an inefficient and corrupt Chinese government in the province and that Japan had made major financial investments.

Japan withdraw from the League of Nations

March 1933

The LEague of Nations General Assembly voted on a motion in February 1933 to condemn Japan as an aggressor nation. Forty-two nations voted against Japan, while Japan voted the sole vote for itself. Japan withdrew from the League in March 1933, suffering no consequences as a result of its departure.

Japan Attacks Nanjing

Approx. 1935

300,000 Deaths

Japanese attack Shanghai

1935

The first major clash of forces of the Imperial Japanese Army and the Chinese National Republican Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War was recorded in the Battle of Shanghai, or also known as the Battle of Songhu.

Japanese Occupation of Indochina

1940

Japan conquers French colonies.
Open door to invasion of Indonesia

Hull Note

November 26, 1941

Decision to cut off oil exports to Japan by United States

Other

Dawes Act

February 8, 1887

authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

Brought an end to WWI.

Washington Disarmament Conference

Approx. November 1921 - Approx. February 1922

The Washington Naval Conference, also called the Washington Arms Conference or the Washington Disarmament Conference, was a military conference called by U.S. President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C.

Locarno Pact

October 16, 1925

series of agreements whereby Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe

Young Plan

1929

Second renegotiation of Germany's World War I reparation payments

Stock Market Crash

October 1929

Beginning of the Great Depression

Geneva Disarmament Conference

Approx. February 1932 - Approx. July 1932

The Second Geneva Naval Conference was a conference held to discuss naval arms limitation, held in Geneva, Switzerland

Election of FDR

November 8, 1932

Franklin D. Roosevelt

New Deal

Approx. 1933 - Approx. 1938

A series of programs that were enacted in the United States.

Cold War

Chinese Civil War

1927 - 1950

War fought between forces loyal to the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China, and forces loyal to the Communist Party of China

House Un-American Activities Committee

1938 - 1975

investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.

Salami Tactics

1945 - 1948

Soviet method to establish friendly, communist governments in Eastern Europe following World War II

Yalta Conference

February 4, 1945 - February 11, 1945

Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin, and Franklin D. Roosevelt meet to discuss aftermath of World War 2
Germany and Berlin to be divided into 4 occupation zones. (US, Soviet, British, French)
Polish borders redrawn: Stalin would allow creation of a democratic government in Poland following “free elections”. “Free elections” would also be held in Eastern Europe
Germany would pay reparations, most of it to the Soviet Union. Denazification.
Soviet Union would join the war against Japan
USSR to join United Nations

Potsdam Conference

July 17, 1945 - August 2, 1945

Churchill, Stalin and Truman meet to again discuss life after World War 2.

The Long Telegram

February 1946

USSR is insecure.
USSR wants to spread Stalinist Ideology (despite “socialism in one country”)
Soviet system is based on fear of “the other” and needs an external energy to sustain itself
USSR is rational; when challenged, Soviets will not risk war.

Iron Curtain Speech

March 1946

Winston Churchill: Europe is essentially divided into 2 spheres: one free and democratic, the other under Soviet domination

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

Contrasted life under western, democratic governments with that under Soviet, totalitarian systems: divided world into “alternative ways of life”.
US policy: “support peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”, i.e. communism
Support could be economic/financial aid or military aid
Committed the US to protection and reconstruction of Western Europe

Marshall Plan

1948 - 1951

$17 billion aid package to rebuild Western Europe
Aimed to:
Revive European economies → economic/political stability
Safeguard US economy by guaranteeing markets in Western Europe.
Offered to Soviet Union and Eastern European countries: Czechoslovakia

Berlin Blockade/Airlift

June 24, 1948 - May 12, 1949

Allied views of Germany after WW2
USSR: desire for revenge; fear of resurgent Germany; desire for reparations
France: feared revived Germany
USA: democratic, strong Germany best hope for stability in Europe; check Soviet expansion
UK: what the Americans said.

Formation of NATO

April 4, 1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

McCarthyism

1950 - 1954

McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.

NSC-68

April 14, 1950

Total Commitment: authorized the US to send military aid to any place in the world confronting “communist aggression”

Korean War

25 Jun 1950 - 27 Jul 1953

The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance.

Election of Eisenhower

1952 - 1960

Death of Stalin

1953

Overthrow of Arbenz

Approx. 1954

CIA overthrows Arbenz

SEATO

September 8, 1954

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
NATO for the Pacific

Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955

Pact between Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia

Austrian State Treaty

May 15, 1955

Re-establish Austria as an independent, sovereign state.

Secret Speech to 20th Party Congress

Feb 1956

20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during 14–25 February 1956. It is known especially for Nikita Khrushchev's "Secret Speech", which denounced the personality cult and dictatorship of Joseph Stalin.

Uprising in Hungary

October 23, 1956 - November 10, 1956

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 or the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés) was a nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

Sputnik

October 4, 1957

First artificial satellite. Made by Russians.

Great Leap Forward

Approx. 1958 - Approx. 1962

an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China

Forming of NASA

1958

NASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Election of JFK

1960

U-2 Incident

May 1, 1960

during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and the premiership of Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down while in Soviet airspace.