Civil War under Mao (CPC) - war between KMT (nationalist gov) and CPC (communists) - other countries intervened, like USA and USSR
created in 1945 to root out communism; used by prominent Duke grad Richard Nixon to indict Alger Hiss, an influential politician and FDR ally
Situation of the war:
-Red army 40 miles from Berlin
-Allies had stopped final German counteroffensive (Battle of the Bulge), started to invade Germany from the west
Some (not all) key points:
-Germany and Berlin to be divided into 4 occupation zones (US, Soviet, British, French)
-Border of Poland set at the Curzon Line; territory will be added from Germany to compensate for lost territory in the East
-USSR committed to joining United Nations (and add Ukraine and Belorussia)
-USSR to join war against Japan
-Churchill, Stalin, and Truman meet to again discuss life after WWII
-Clement Attlee replaces Churchill mid-conference
-First meeting of the Big 3 since HItler had been defeated
-Atmosphere: chilly and tense: Stalin had already set up a communist government in Poland, reneging on Yalta agreement
-Truman learned of the US atomic bomb during the conference and had decided to use it against Japan. Truman tells Stalin of a “new weapon of unusually destructive force”
Soviet method to establish friendly, communist governments in Eastern Europe following WWII.
Stage 1: Organize “anti-fascist” coalitions including communist party and others
Stage 2: push non-communist parties to the side
Stage 3: replace local communists with chosen, loyal, Moscow-trained officials
(Containment was based on the ideas of George Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow)
The Long Telegram (1946) <- sent by Kennan , but was first published anonymously by X
-USSR is insecure
-USSR wants to spread Stalinist ideology (despite “socialism in one country”)
-Soviet system is based on fear of “the other” and needs an external enemy to sustain itself
-USSR is rational; when challenged, Soviets will not risk war
Winston Churchill: Europe is essentially divided into 2 spheres - one free and democratic, the other under Soviet domination
-Contrasted life under western, democratic governments with that under Soviet, totalitarian systems: divided world into “alternative ways of life”
-US policy: “support peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”, i.e. communism
-Support could be economic/financial aid or military aid
-Committed the US to protection and reconstruction of Western Europe
$17 billion aid package to rebuild Western Europe
-Revive European economies --> economic/political stability
-Safeguard US economy by guaranteeing markets in Western Europe
-Offered to Soviet Union and Eastern European countries (especially Czechoslovakia)
Result of Berlin Blockade/Airlift
Kim Il Sung (North Korea) invade South Korea - wants to unite Korea under communist rule
Stalin gets involved with North Korea: supports this opportunity to expand Soviet hegemony, he has The Bomb and post-Salami Tactics so Confidence!
Mao (China): supporting expansion of communism, also some sweet A$$ territory..but now there is war so close to Chinese border (risk!) --> Team Player act could get Soviet support for a communist invasion of Taiwan
USA: Containment -> Truman Doctrine, must prevent spread of communism; Support South Korea because Who Lost China to Communism? Communism got so far, we didn’t act enough.
Nobody did Red-baiting like GASTON!
JK, like Senator for Wisconsin Joseph McCarthy
McCarthy made sweeping accusations about communist infiltration of the federal government
February 1950: McCarthy warns of 200 communists working for the State Department
Charges were unsubstantiated and slanderous. He used guilt by association and innuendo. He was mainly targeting political enemies (nice).
However, due to the Cold War, lots of people were willing to believe his claims. People started outing one another in order to avoid being labeled “soft on communism”.
Arthur Miller: “The Crucible”: popular play in the 1950s about the Salem Witch Trials as a metaphor for 1950s America
Result of Korean War
Total Commitment: authorized the US to send military aid to any place in the world confronting “communist aggression”
-Alliance system to encircle USSR (NATO, SEATO, etc)
-Military power to protect vulnerable areas: West Berlin
-Use of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): overthrow governments considered too left wing
-Increased reliance on nuclear weapons --> brinkmanship: threat of massive retaliation in the event of conflict --> force the other side down from the “brink” --> Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
Agreement between USA and USSR
withdrawal of occupation troops from Austria, Austria to remain neutral and not join NATO
Josef Stalin dies. Eventually replaced by Nikita Khrushchev.
CIA overthrows leader in Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz
South-East Asia Treaty Organization: NATO for the Pacific
Result of Korean War
Military alliance, signed about two weeks after West Germany joined NATO
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 or the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 was a nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Khrushchev “Secret Speech” to the 20th Party Congress:
-Denounced Stalin’s “Cult of Personality”
-Denounced the Purges of the 1930s
-Beginning of “De-Stalinization”
Sputnik: first artificial satellite -> Space Age begins!
the People's Republic of China was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China
The USA, feeling that they were being beaten in the development of science and technology, poured money into scientific research:
----> National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
US pilot Gary Powers shot down over USSR in a U-2 spy plane...
Proposed “Flexible Response”:
-More spending on conventional forces
-More spending on nuclear weapons
-Boosted funding for the CIA
-Economic aid to developing countries
-Openness to negotiations with the USSR
Lenin's plan to allow limited small business in the USSR after the Russian Civil War. Stalin used the NEP to isolate and eliminate enemies (Trotsky, Kamenev, etc.)
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization of its agricultural sector during reign of Stalin. It began during and was part of the first five-year plan.
Under Stalin; Passed on Socialism in One Country; called for economic and industry growth, collectivization, and the utilization of the prison population
Russian communist leader - marked start of the Great Purge
Sergei Kirov is assassinated, assassin says Kamenev and Zinoviev put him up to it and tried a plot to kill Stalin - Kirov becomes the great martyr of Russia (after Stalin), shot down by a Trotskyite
Trial of 16 (including Kamenev and Zinoviev) - Zinoviev says he is guilt and blames Trotsky
Trial of 17 lesser enemies, -> 13 executed, rest to labor camps EXCEPT Radek, who was spared as he implicated others -> set stage of Trail of 21 and pretext for the Great Purge
A secret trial before a military tribunal of a group of Red Army generals -> key trial of the Great Purge
This trial triggered a massive purge of the Red Army.
All the leading defendants were executed
...is the most famous of Soviet show trials because of the people involved and the scope of charges, which tied together all the loose threads from earlier trials
Even sympathetic observers who had stomached the earlier trials found it hard to swallow the new charges as they became ever more absurd, and the purge had now expanded to include virtually every living Old Bolshevik leader except Stalin
Belgium and France take this highly industrialized region of western Germany because they want their payments from WW1 NOW
Nazi party - 13 million vote, 37% of the Reichstag, largest political party!
President Paul von Hindenburg agrees to appoint Hitler chancellor (congrats u won Secret Hitler): 19 months until ABSOLUTE POWER is gained
The Reichstag is set on FIRE; a Dutch communist is arrested for arson
Under the pressure from Hitler, Hindenburg invokes Article 48:
No habeas corpus (arrest without trial ok)
Freedom of Expression
Freedom of the Press
Freedom of Association
Free of Public Assembly
Freedom of the Secrecy of the Post and Telephone
Hitler lobbies the Reichstag to pass an Enabling Act that gives the Chancellor power to enact laws without the Reichstag
Nazis needed at least 31 non-Nazi votes to do this ---> Z Party promise support
March 24, 1933: the whole Reichstag except the SPD vote for it, giving Hitler unchecked power :)
Night of the Long Knives, (June 30, 1934), in German history, purge of Nazi leaders by Adolf Hitler. Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leaders.
Announcement of Rearmament Program:
-Construction of 2,500 aircraft
-Expansion of navy
-Mass production of guns, tanks, artillery, etc.
Had already been working secretly with Russia to train and build since ~1922
Key features of the Four Year Plan:
-It was meant to be accomplished over FOUR YEARS!
-Develop synthetic materials to minimize imports -> artificial rubber
-Emphasis on chemical industry and synthetic fuels
-Develop steelworks, using German iron ore (which was less pure)
-Emphasis on heavy machinery
-Targets for production were to be set at the national level
Hitler boldly marched 22,000 German troops into the Rhineland, in a direct contravention of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler offered France and Britain a 25 year non-aggression pact and claimed 'Germany had no territorial demands to make in Europe'.
On March 12, 1938, German troops march into Austria to annex the German-speaking nation for the Third Reich.
In early 1938, Austrian Nazis conspired for the second time in four years to seize the Austrian government by force and unite their nation with Nazi Germany. Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg, learning of the conspiracy, met with Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in the hopes of reasserting his country’s independence but was instead bullied into naming several top Austrian Nazis to his cabinet. On March 9, Schuschnigg called a national vote to resolve the question of Anschluss, or “annexation,” once and for all. Before the plebiscite could take place, however, Schuschnigg gave in to pressure from Hitler and resigned on March 11. In his resignation address, under coercion from the Nazis, he pleaded with Austrian forces not to resist a German “advance” into the country.
The next day, March 12, Hitler accompanied German troops into Austria, where enthusiastic crowds met them. Hitler appointed a new Nazi government, and on March 13 the Anschluss was proclaimed. Austria existed as a federal state of Germany until the end of World War II, when the Allied powers declared the Anschluss void and reestablished an independent Austria. Schuschnigg, who had been imprisoned soon after resigning, was released in 1945.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined.
On 15 March 1939, German troops marched into Czechoslovakia. They took over Bohemia, and established a protectorate over Slovakia. Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia was the end of appeasement: It proved that Hitler had been lying at Munich.
a neutrality pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed in Moscow
The pact delineated the spheres of interest between the two powers, confirmed by the supplementary protocol of the German-Soviet Frontier Treaty amended after the joint invasion of Poland. It remained in force for nearly two years, until the German government of Adolf Hitler ended the pact by launching an attack on the Soviet positions in Eastern Poland during Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941.
Promised Italy the Dalmatian Coast if it joined the Allies
Italy ignored the LoN sanctions, quit the LoN, made special deals with Britain and France, and ultimately established control of Ethiopia. The crisis discredited the League and moved Fascist Italy closer to an alliance with Nazi Germany
Coalition formed between Italy and Germany; An agreement formulated by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936. It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in 1939. The term Axis Powers came to include Japan as well.
Religious Reform: Formal Separation of Church and State, Freedom of worship guaranteed, Religious symbols removed from public buildings
Agrarian Reform: Reduced work hours: 8 hour workday, Overtime, Local labor use (rather than importing cheaper labor), Mandatory land cultivation (under penalty of seizure by the state) -> if not, seized and distributed to peasants
Popular Front: In advance of the elections, political parties of the Center-Left agree to run on a common platform:
-Continue agrarian reform
Members: PSOE, PCE, POUM, IR, UR, CNT-FAI, UGT (the leftists and center)
Popular Front wins!!! The right-wing parties are pissed that they get less seats in Parliament!!
Local anarchists encourage landless peasants to seize land --> CNT encourages action
Fears of right-wing = Popular Front is controlled by radical elements
Assassination of Jose Calvo Sotelo, a member of the Falange (rightist group)
Victory of the Popular Front, fears that it was controlled by radicals, and the assassination of Calvo Sotelo led generals of the Foreign Legion led by Francisco Franco to launch a coup
An aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War. The town was being used as a communications center behind the frontline.
It was carried out by Spanish nationalist government allies, the Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria.
The attack gained infamy because it involved the deliberate targeting of civilians by a military air force.
With the Republican cause all but lost, its leaders attempted to negotiate a peace, but Franco refused.
On March 28, 1939, the victorious Nationalists entered Madrid in triumph, and the Spanish Civil War came to an end.
Up to a million lives were lost in the conflict, the most devastating in Spanish history.
War fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, primarily over control of Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the Chinese port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895.
An alliance that bound Britain and Japan to assist one another in safeguarding their respective interests in China and Korea. Directed against Russian expansionism in the Far East, it was a cornerstone of British and Japanese policy in Asia until after World War I.
The alliance served Japan in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) by discouraging France, Russia’s European ally, from entering the war on the Russian side. It was renewed in 1905 and again in 1911 after Japan’s annexation of Korea. On the basis of its tie with Britain, Japan participated in World War I on the side of the Allies.
After the war the British no longer feared Russian encroachment in China and wished to maintain close ties with the United States, which tended to view Japan as its rival in the Pacific. Following an unsuccessful attempt to bring the U.S. into the alliance at the Washington Conference of 1921–22, Britain allowed it to lapse.
War fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.
Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for their navy and for maritime trade.
(Russia said: Hey, can you maybe..chill? And Japan said: How about maybe YOU chill?)
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905, after negotiations lasting from August 6 to August 30, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, in the United States. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in the negotiations, and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
The war was unpopular with the Russian public, and the Russian government was under increasing threat of revolution at home. On the other hand, the Japanese economy was severely strained by the war, with rapidly mounting foreign debts, and its forces in Manchuria faced the problem of ever-extending supply lines. No Russian territory had been seized, and the Russians continued to build up reinforcements via the Trans-Siberian Railway. Recognizing that a long-term war was not to Japan's advantage, as early as July 1904 the Japanese government had begun seeking out intermediaries to assist in bringing the war to a negotiated conclusion.
A set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the government of the Republic of China on January 8, 1915. The demands would greatly extend Japanese control of Manchuria and of the Chinese economy, and were opposed by Britain and the United States. In the final settlement Japan gained a little but lost a great deal of prestige and trust in Britain and the US.
The Chinese people responded with a spontaneous nationwide boycott of Japanese goods; Japan's exports to China fell 40%. Britain was affronted and no longer trusted Japan as a partner. With the First World War underway, Japan's position was strong and Britain's was weak. Nevertheless, Britain (and the United States) forced Japan to drop the fifth set of demands that would have given Japan a large measure of control over the entire Chinese economy and ended the Open Door Policy. Japan obtained its first four sets of goals in a treaty with China on May 25, 1915.
Started with the Mukden Incident in September 1931. Bomb exploded near Japanese soldier at the South Manchurian Railway outside Mukden, Manchuria. Japan blamed the explosion on Chinese troops and the Kwantung Army used the incident as an excuse to occupy the resource-filled Manchuria.
By February 1932, only the southern province of Manchuria (Jehol/Rehe) remained out of Japan's control. China could not combat the takeover - Japan's army was better trained and better equipped. They conquered Jehol in March 1933 (same month Japan left the LoN).
Almost immediately, Japan created the illusion that they had only helped Manchuria achieve Independence from chaotic China and they presented the new independent state of Manchukuo.
Commission founded after China appealed to the League about Japan's occupation of Manchuria. The League responded with caution; this was the first major military conflict between members. The Lytton Commission investigated the Mukden Incident and Japan's occupation.
Their report submitted to the League in October 1932 admitted that before Japan invaded the province there was an inefficient and corrupt Chinese government and that Japan had made major financial investments. It also explained the details of the invasion, the establishment of the state of Manchukuo, and the economics of Manchuria, China, and Japan. The report determined that the invasion WAS NOT A RESULT OF WANTING TO PROTECT MANCHURIANS from China's government. The report suggested that Japan pull its forces back to the South Manchurian Railway.
The LoN General Assembly voted on a motion in February 1933 to condemn Japan as an aggressor nation. All nations voted against Japan except Japan. With this, they withdrew from the League in March 1933, suffering no consequences as a result of its departure.
Japan presented this new independent state led by the last Emperor of China.
They applied for Olympic membership and to be a member of the League of Nations. Both applications were denied, a clear indication that other countries considered Manchukuo's independence a sham and that the country was really a puppet-state.
This, following the Lytton Commission's findings and the unanimous condemning of Japan as an aggressor nation by the LoN General Assembly
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China and the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war.
Although Japan had not formally declared war on China, by August 1937, following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of July 7 and the ensuing Japanese invasion of North China, a de facto state of war existed between China and Japan.
The battle can be divided into three stages, and eventually involved nearly one million troops. The first stage lasted from August 13 to August 22, 1937, during which the NRA attempted to eradicate Japanese troop presence in downtown Shanghai. The second stage lasted from August 23 to October 26, 1937, during which the Japanese launched amphibious landings on the Jiangsu coast and the two armies fought a Stalingrad-type house-to-house battle, with the Japanese attempting to gain control of the city and the surrounding regions. The last stage, ranging from October 27 to the end of November 1937, involved the retreat of the Chinese army in the face of Japanese flanking maneuvers, and the ensuing combat on the road to China's capital, Nanjing.
Nanjing Massacre following the Battle of Shanghai
An episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the Japanese captured Nanjing. During this period, soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army murdered Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants who numbered an estimated 40,000 to over 300,000, and perpetrated widespread rape and looting
Japan takes Indochina from France forces - rip
Context: Sino-Japanese War, World War II
Japan was able to occupy Tonkin in northern Indochina, tightening the blockade of China and making a continuation of the drawn-out Battle of South Guangxi unnecessary.
-Japan remove all troops from Indochina, China, and Manchuria
-Withdraw from the Tripartite Alliance
-Withdraw support for the Chinese puppet states it had established
Japanese Response: “so they spit on the US in Hawaii, and challenged them to war!”
Did not go according to plan, because a lot of ships were not in the harbor like they were scheduled to be
Ended World War 1
War Guilt clause because everyone hates Germany
The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one content: Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened.
The world’s largest naval powers gathered in Washington, D.C. for a conference to discuss naval disarmament and ways to relieve growing tensions in East Asia.
In the wake of World War I, leaders in the international community sought to prevent the possibility of another war. Rising Japanese militarism and an international arms race heightened these concerns. As a result, policymakers worked to reduce the rising threat.
USA, UK, JAP, FRA, ITA - 5:5:3:1:1
In the Four-Power Treaty, the USA, FRA, the UK, and JAP agreed to consult with each other in the event of a future crisis in East Asia before taking action. This treaty replaced the Anglo-Japanese Treaty.
Nine-Power Treaty: The treaty promised that each of the signatories—the USA, the UK, JAP, FRA, ITA, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, and CHI—would respect the territorial integrity of China. The treaty recognized Japanese dominance in Manchuria but otherwise affirmed the importance of equal opportunity for all nations doing business in the country. For its part, China agreed not to discriminate against any country seeking to do business there.
An attempt to solve the World War I reparations problem that Germany had to pay, which had bedeviled international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.
The occupation of the Ruhr industrial area by France and Belgium contributed to the hyperinflation crisis in Germany, partially because of its disabling effect on the German economy. The plan provided for an end to the Allied occupation, and a staggered payment plan for Germany's payment of war reparations.
A series of agreements whereby Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe.
second renegotiation of Germany’s World War I reparation payments; revision of Dawes Plan; reduced Germany's payments due
-Billions of dollars in savings vanish almost instantly
-By 1932: 22% of banks had failed (depositors lost their savings)
-Unemployment - 25%, in some places even higher (Chicago = 50%)
-25% farmers lost their farms
An effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S., to actualize the ideology of disarmament.
The talks broke down and Hitler withdrew Germany from both the Conference and the League of Nations in October 1933. The 1930s had proved far too self-interested an international period to accommodate multilateral action in favour of pacifism.
The campaign unfolded during the darkest days of the Great Depression, and Roosevelt's opponent, Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover, was the man many Americans (perhaps unfairly) held personally responsible for their misery. Five thousand banks had failed, and by the end of the 1932, one third of the nation's workers were unemployed.
Successes of the New Deal
-May have saved American capitalism; no revolution occurred (as in Europe)
-New Deal relieved the worst of the crisis in 1933: relief had been the preliminary objective
-FDR’s positive leadership restored America’s pride and faith in the government
-New Deal reforms are still important today: Social Security, labor laws, TVA, FDIC, FHA, minimum wage and maximum hours
-Some improvement in the economy
-GNP rose from $74.2 billion to $91.4 billion
-Wage increased by 50%
-Farm income doubled
-Unemployment dropped from 25% to about 20%
Criticisms of the New Deal
-Unemployment rate never went below 16%
-Expansion of the Federal Government: Bureaucracy mushroomed: hundreds of thousands of employees, it became the largest business in the country
-State power faded further: more central control from the federal government
-National debt doubled from 1932 to 1939 (20 billion to 40 billion)
-Concern about “loss of initiative”: creation of social welfare
-“Planned economy” and “creeping socialism”
-Recession of 1937-38 wiped out most gains from 1933