SMEI 1987-2016

Events

enlargement of EU

1986

Spain and Portugal enter EU

Committee of central bankers and technical experts

1988

Hannover conference --> lead to single currency by 1999

collapse of USSR

1989

collapse of communism, what to do with eastern european countries

unification of Germany

1989

3 stages EMU

1989

european monetary union

french referendum

1992

TEU accepted by France by only marginally

danish referendum

1992

rejection of TEU by Denmark

treaty of european union

1992

two intergovernmental organisations( monetary and political union --> 1991) met and their ideas were incorporated in TEU
Maastricht introducing 3 pillar structure

signed in 1992
ratified in 1993

PRINCIPLE OF SUBSIDIARITY

recession after TEU in Germany

1992

intergovernmental period of EU

1992 - 2004

decisions of monetary union

1995

decisions of monetary union were settled, in favour of Germany, European Central Bank would be in Frankfurt and the new currency would be called euro not as french wanted ecu

Sweden, Finland, Austria became members of the EU

1995

initiative on North Africa and Middle East

1995

initiative on North Africa and Middle East by the european council

approaching the targets of monetary union

1996 - 1997

huge number of member states managed to achieve or to approach targets

IGC on enlargement

1996

EU promised to take 10 new eastern european countries to EU, they were preparing for enlargement

treaty of Amsterdam

1997

1997 - signed.
institutional reforms that were believed to be essential to pave the way to enlargement, extension of QMW
Germany, Britain (larger could mean looser) in favour
France, Spain, Portugal, Italy --> against enlargement because of monetary issues, agriculture subsidies

euro works

1999

euro came into operation for 11 member states: Austria, Belgium,Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain
officially comes into force in 2002

the Lisbon strategy

2000

special European Council agreed to new EU strategy on employment, economic reform and social cohesion with the goal of making the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world by 2010"

ICG vol2

2000

it was opened under Portuguese presidency

treaty of nice

2001

the longest European Council in the history of EC/EU, the veto was removed, Europe was ready for enlargement, triple majority of QMV
entered into the force in 2003

Leaden Declaration on the future of Europe

2002

european constitution was also discussed there

enlargement of EU

2004

Cyprus, Czech republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak republic and Slovenia --> new members of EU

european constitution

2004

european constitution is signed

period of reflection

2005

european council called for a period of reflection, depoliticisation of some of the more sensitive issues raised in the referendum campaigns

rejection of eu constitution

2005

France and the Netherlands reject the constitution due to :
1. France - reaction to national policy, french people not satisfied with their politicians
2. The Netherlands - eastern european workers might come to the Netherlands and take away work from dutch people and government wouldn't do a lot about it

VERY GOOD BASIS FOR EUROSCEPTICISM

EU in huge crisis

2005 - 2016

do we need more or less EU? end of eurozone? end of EU?

treaty of Lisbon

2007

reforming the constitutional treaty,
adopted in 2009

financial crisis

2007

at first the eurozone was not affected by the crisis

ENLARGEMENT OF THE EU

2007

Romania and Lithuania join EU

greece crisis

2009

the beginning of crisis in Greece, huge greek debt

EP election record law

2009

continuation of Eurosceptism

EU helping greece?

2010

EU leaders met to discuss whether greece should be given assistance, 30million euros rescue package ( turned out to be too little and too late)

Europe 2020

2010

strategy as the successor to the Lisbon Strategy, focused on promoting growth and jobs, it established specific targets for governments in the areas of employment, education, research and innovation, social inclusion and poverty reduction

nobel peace prize

2012

EU got nobel peace prize, in recognition of its role in advancing peace, reconciliation, democracy and human rights

the treaty on stability co-ordination and governance

2012

ratified in 2013

the budget

2013

EU reached a budget of 960 billion euros for the 2014-20

Croatia joins

2013

Croatia becomes member of EU

Cameron referendum

2013

Cameron said that if he wins he will make a brevet referendum

refugee crisis

2015

brexit

2016