Paola Loza Period 3 (will be updated as the year progresses)
The Italian Renaissance was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Renaissance meaning "revival".
an intermittent struggle between England and France in the 14th–15th century over a series of disputes, including the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown. The struggle involved several generations of English and French claimants to the crown.
End of Hundred Years' War. The Fall of Constantinople occured on May 29, 1453 after a siege which began on April 6. The battle was part of the Byzantine-Ottoman Wars (1265-1453)
The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance that occurred in Europe north of the Alps. Before 1497, Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century, its ideas spread around Europe. This influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance in the Low Countries, Polish Renaissance and other national and localized movements, each with different characteristics and strengths.
Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776
author of The Prince (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance.
A list describing church- related issues that Martin Luther felt were in need of reform. The start of the Protestant Reformation.
The movement against the Holy Roman Church, sparked by Luther because of its corruption , a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
refers to the rapid advances in European scientific, mathematical, and political thought, based on a new philosophy of empiricism and a faith in progress that defined Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries.
was the successful revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King Philip II of Spain, who had inherited the region (Seventeen Provinces) from the defunct Duchy of Burgundy.
French royal decree establishing toleration for Huguenots (Protestants). It granted freedom of worship and legal equality for Huguenots within limits, and ended the Wars of Religion. The Edict was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, causing many Huguenots to emigrate.
was a series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War over succession within the Holy Roman Empire as well as the Eighty Years' War between Holland and Spain for Dutch independence.
The rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. It was characterized by the use of steam power, the growth of factories, and the mass production of manufactured goods.
was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond.
A brutal program to silence the critics of the government, which executed anyone that opposed the Revolution.