American Civil War ( (April 12, 1861-April 04th 1865) In 1861 war broke out between the North and the South. The South wanted to separate for the North (the Union) and form it own country and make it's own laws.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863) signed by Abraham Lincoln. It was a document which granted freedom to all slaves in all areas of the Confederacy still fighting.. It did not give freedom to slaves in the border states or in the Union.
After the Civil War the nation faced the task of rebuilding the south which was ruined by war this was called Reconstruction.
13th Amendment ( December 6 ) The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves only in areas controlled by the Confederates. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery throughout the nation. It also forbid involuntary servitude or labor done against one’s will.
14th Amendment: Section 1: defined citizenship, it protected the rights of freed slaves by guaranteeing all citizens “equal protection under the law”
Section 2: provides that representation in the Houses of Representatives is decided on the basis of the number of people in the state. It also states that any States which deny the vote to citizens over the age of 21 will be punished by losing part of their representation in the House.
15th Amendment: Right to vote, this amendment gave African Americans the right to vote.
Jim Crowe Period: ( 1877-1965) Jim Crow laws were laws in the South based on race. They enforced segregation between white people and black people in public places such as schools, transportation, movie theatres, restrooms, and restaurants. They also made it difficult for black people to vote.
May 18, 1896: This was a Supreme Court Case which decided that "separate but equal" facilities satisfied the guarantees of 14th Amendment, which allowed legal sanction to "Jim Crow" segregation laws. In a 7 to 1 decision the "separate but equal" provision of public accommodations by state governments was found to be constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause
NAACP : the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was one of the earliest and most influential civil rights organization in the United States. The NAACP wanted to get rid of prejudices toward blacks and have complete equality before the law.
WWI: World War I was fought between the Allied Powers ( France, Russia, and Britain, the United States also fought on the side of the Allies after 1917.) and the Central Powers. Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria. Although there were a number of causes for the war, the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the main reason for starting the war. After the assassination, Austria declared war on Serbia. Then Russia and other European countries joined the war to protect their allies.