Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (1393 – 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator, was an important figure in 15th-century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire.
The Ottoman Empire, also known as the Turkish Empire, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.
Martin Luther (1483 – 1546), was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1492 a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus resulted in the discovery of the Americas, a continent which was previously unknown in Europe, as well as the colonization of the Americas.
Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operations of the Spanish Empire - it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation.
John Calvin (1509 – 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation.
The Spanish Armada was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, as well as the deadliest European religious war, resulting in eight million casualties.
Sakoku was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which severe restrictions were placed on the entry of foreign nationals to Japan and Japanese nationals were forbidden to leave the country on penalty of death if they returned without special permission.
King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748).