1450-1850 Science and Tech 1450-1650
Science, technology, medicine
Developed the Heliocentric or Copernican, Theory of the Universe, stating that the Earth revolves around the sun
Studied human cadavers, a practice forbidden by church doctrine
a book by Andreas Vesalius that renewed and modernized the study of the human body
laid groundwork for Kepler's discoveries
Invented the telescope
Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion,most significantly noting that planets' orbits are elliptical instead of circular.
Doctor and an anatomist
By William Harvey on the circulatory system
Newton's Law of Gravity, Laws of motion, the Newton Cradle
the Age of Science of the 1600s and the Enlightenment of the 1700s introduced countless new concepts to European society. These ideas continue to permeate modern society.
Art movement emphasized elaborate, decorative, frivolous, and aristocratic art.
Pitted Austria, England, and the Dutch against Prussia, France, and Spain.
Frederick II Hohenzollern of Prussia declared himself "the First Servant of the the State"
preserved the balance of power.
Austria and France allied in what was known as the Diplomatic Revolution. The war engaged Austria, France, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and Saxony against Prussia and England. The goal of the war was to annihilate Prussia. The Seven Years War is known in the Americas, as the French and Indian Wars.
Came to power because Peter III failed to bear a male heir to the throne and was killed. Her enlightened reforms include: Restrictions on torture, religious toleration, female education.
Prussia retained all of its territory, including Sileasi. France ceded Canada to Britain and the North American interior to Spain, and removed its armies from India. It did however get to keep its West Indies colonies.
At this point Great Britain became the supreme naval power.
Joseph II Habsburg of Austria could be considered perhaps the greatest enlightened ruler, and he was purely enlightened, working solely for the good of his country. He was anti-feudalism, anti-church, and anti-nobility. Even with all the good he did he failed because he tried to do too much too soon.
by October of 1795 Poland had been absorbed by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Abolition of Slavery
required compulsory education for Austrian children.
Includes politics, and philosophy
English Revolution shapes his political outlook
May be considered the father of the enlightenment: because of all the opposition he inspired.
Refuted Hobbes, humanity is only governed by laws of nature, man has rights to life, liberty , and property.
Book written by Hobbes on Political Philosophy.
life is "nasty, brutish, and short"- people are naturally bad and need a strong government to control them.
Justified supremacy of Parliament
tabula rasa- human progress is in the hands of society
Stressed Religious tolerance; Philosopher
"general will"- government acts for the majority
Checks and Balances on government, no one group having sole power