1450-1850 Science and Tech 1450-1650

Science and Technology

Science, technology, medicine

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Developed the Heliocentric or Copernican, Theory of the Universe, stating that the Earth revolves around the sun

Andreas Vesalius

1514 - 1564

Studied human cadavers, a practice forbidden by church doctrine

Structure of the Human Body (Vesalius)


a book by Andreas Vesalius that renewed and modernized the study of the human body

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

laid groundwork for Kepler's discoveries

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Invented the telescope

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion,most significantly noting that planets' orbits are elliptical instead of circular.

William Harvey

1578 - 1657

Doctor and an anatomist

On the Movement of the Heart and Blood (Harvey)


By William Harvey on the circulatory system

Sir Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Newton's Law of Gravity, Laws of motion, the Newton Cradle



1650 - 1800

the Age of Science of the 1600s and the Enlightenment of the 1700s introduced countless new concepts to European society. These ideas continue to permeate modern society.

Rococo Art

1715 - 1800

Art movement emphasized elaborate, decorative, frivolous, and aristocratic art.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Pitted Austria, England, and the Dutch against Prussia, France, and Spain.

Frederick "Great"

1740 - 1786

Frederick II Hohenzollern of Prussia declared himself "the First Servant of the the State"

Treaty of Aix la Chapelle

1749 - 1756

preserved the balance of power.

Seven Years' War

1757 - 1763

Austria and France allied in what was known as the Diplomatic Revolution. The war engaged Austria, France, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and Saxony against Prussia and England. The goal of the war was to annihilate Prussia. The Seven Years War is known in the Americas, as the French and Indian Wars.

Catherine Great

1762 - 1796

Came to power because Peter III failed to bear a male heir to the throne and was killed. Her enlightened reforms include: Restrictions on torture, religious toleration, female education.

Peace of Paris


Prussia retained all of its territory, including Sileasi. France ceded Canada to Britain and the North American interior to Spain, and removed its armies from India. It did however get to keep its West Indies colonies.
At this point Great Britain became the supreme naval power.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Joseph II Habsburg of Austria could be considered perhaps the greatest enlightened ruler, and he was purely enlightened, working solely for the good of his country. He was anti-feudalism, anti-church, and anti-nobility. Even with all the good he did he failed because he tried to do too much too soon.

Partitioning Poland

1772 - 1795

by October of 1795 Poland had been absorbed by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.

Abolished Serfdom


Abolition of Slavery

General School Ordinance


required compulsory education for Austrian children.

Society and Culture

Includes politics, and philosophy

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

English Revolution shapes his political outlook
May be considered the father of the enlightenment: because of all the opposition he inspired.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Refuted Hobbes, humanity is only governed by laws of nature, man has rights to life, liberty , and property.

Leviathan (Hobbes)


Book written by Hobbes on Political Philosophy.
life is "nasty, brutish, and short"- people are naturally bad and need a strong government to control them.

Two Treatises of Government (Locke)


Justified supremacy of Parliament

Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke)


tabula rasa- human progress is in the hands of society


1694 - 1778

Stressed Religious tolerance; Philosopher

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Social contract
"general will"- government acts for the majority

Spirit of the Laws (Montesquieu)


Checks and Balances on government, no one group having sole power