Reformation & leadin



Martin Luther

November 10, 1483 - February 18, 1546

German monk, was the first to force the issue of the immorality of Church corruption.

Spanish Reconquista


Ferdinand and Isabella forcibly expelled Jews and Muslims

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Founded Calvinism in Geneva, Switzerland.


Oct 31, 1517 - 1650

Stresses education for all, including females. Salvation is attained by faith alone, instead of through works. Still around today


Oct 31, 1517 - 1655

The Reformation started as a religious movement, but became political and as a result had economic and social impacts

95 Theses

October 31, 1517

Attacked the ideas of salvation through works, the sale of indulgences, and the collection of wealth by the papacy.



Pope Leo X demanded that Luther stop preaching, which Luther refused.


1530 - 1648

The Catholics, enraged at the rise of Protestantism and determined to restore their control over European society, began their reform movement, which gained momentum in Italy. The Catholic Church worked to reform, reaffirm their key beliefs, and then defend their ideology. It is important to recognize that they changed NOTHING about their core beliefs.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Formed by Pope Paul II and Charles V Habsburg of Austria, convened a general church council at Trent that met sporadically between 1545 and 1563. The Council reasserted the supremacy of clerics over the laity. Established seminaries in each diocese to train priests. Reformed indulgences, though the process was continued. Eliminate pluralism, nepotism, simony, and other similar problems from the church.