German monk, was the first to force the issue of the immorality of Church corruption.
Ferdinand and Isabella forcibly expelled Jews and Muslims
Founded Calvinism in Geneva, Switzerland.
Stresses education for all, including females. Salvation is attained by faith alone, instead of through works. Still around today
The Reformation started as a religious movement, but became political and as a result had economic and social impacts
Attacked the ideas of salvation through works, the sale of indulgences, and the collection of wealth by the papacy.
Pope Leo X demanded that Luther stop preaching, which Luther refused.
The Catholics, enraged at the rise of Protestantism and determined to restore their control over European society, began their reform movement, which gained momentum in Italy. The Catholic Church worked to reform, reaffirm their key beliefs, and then defend their ideology. It is important to recognize that they changed NOTHING about their core beliefs.
Formed by Pope Paul II and Charles V Habsburg of Austria, convened a general church council at Trent that met sporadically between 1545 and 1563. The Council reasserted the supremacy of clerics over the laity. Established seminaries in each diocese to train priests. Reformed indulgences, though the process was continued. Eliminate pluralism, nepotism, simony, and other similar problems from the church.