IDS Time Line

Middle Ages

Middle Ages (450-1500)

450 - 1500

The Middle Ages aka the Dark Ages, was a time that spanned 1000 years, starting after the fall of the Roman Empire and expanding till the Protestant Reformation

Magna Carta

June 15, 1215

It was the first formal document stating that a King had to follow the laws of the land and it guaranteed the rights of individuals against the wishes of the King. This meant people couldn't be arrested, imprisoned or have their possessions taken away except by the judgement of his equals and/or the law of the land. This laid the way for trial by jury which means people are tried by their peers and guaranteed the civil rights of the individual.

The Magna Carta established the principle that the people of England, at this stage represented by the Barons, could limit the power of a King, if he was doing things that were not good for the country

Dante Alighieri

June 1, 1265 - September 14, 1321

Dante played around with the differences between Latin and Greek and his native Tuscan dialect.
Divine Comedy in Italy -1310
Inferno- 1321

John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

An English priest and professor at Oxford. He founded the Lollard movement, which argued that salvation didn't have to come through the Pope, and that the King was superior to and more important that the Pope and religion. One of the first to set out to translate the Bible into a vernacular language rather than using the Latin Vulgate.

The Hundred Years War

1328 - 1453

Fought between France and England, over three main point: who has of the Gascony region in France, the fact that the French cloth production town rebellions were supported by England, and who gets to inherit the French throne after the death of King Charles the IV.

King Charles IV dies without direct descendant

1328

Kick started the Hundred Years War

Geoffrey Chaucer

1343 - 1400

Author of the The Canterbury Tales

Bubonic Plague

1347 - 1351

Hit Europe in 1347, the Plague was primarily transmitted by fleas and rats. The Y. Pestis wetp across the continent, killing one third of the population by 1351.

Jan Hus (Bohemia)

1369 - July 6, 1415

He formed the Hussitcs, which attempted to bring about reforms like those attempted by Wycliff in England. He was burned at the stake for his views towards the Church.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

There were three Popes: Pope Gregory XI, Pope Urban VI, and Pope Clement VII

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The Council of Constance stepped in and called for the abdication of the three popes in power. Martin V was elected as a single pope, effectively ending the Great Schism

Renaissance & Humanism

Humanism

1300 - 1600

an intellectual movement that advocated the study of history and literature as a chief means of identifying with the glories of the ancient world.

Francesco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Italian scholar, poet and early humanist. His sonnets debunked the Medieval conceptions and stereotypes of people. Supposedly the first Humanist

Giovanni Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Wrote the Decameron, a short story about the lies of people living during the Black Death. The book focused on people's responses to the plague rather than God's wrath.

Renaissance

1350 - 1600

Post Plague Europe. This represtened a time when Europe sought knowledge from the ancient world and moved out of the Dark Ages.

Gutenberg Printing Press

1440

Johannes Gutenberg created a printing press with movable type

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

was known as one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, as a result of his innovations in both art and science.

Pico della Mirandola

1463 - 1494

Italian Renaissance humanist philosopher and scholar. Authored the "Oration on the Dignity of Man," which became known as "manifesto of the Renaissance." Man has unlimited potential, and with his free will can be anything he wants to be.

Desiderius Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Dutch humanist and theologian. "Handbook of a Christian Knight"

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

One of the most prominent and important artists of the Renaissance.

Sir Thomas More

1478 - 1535

English lawyer, writer, and politician. Devout Catholic who wrote "Utopia"

Raphael

1483 - 1520

Famous painter and architect during the Renaissance

The Prince (Machiavelli)

1532

A political treatise by Niccolo Machiavelli, was basically a "how to be a successful national leader for Dummies"

Age of Exploration

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Created a school for the advancement of navigation, laying the groundwork for Portugal to become a leader in the Age of Exporation

Age of Exploration

1400 - 1700

Europe began their modern exploration of the world.

Bartolomeo Diaz

1487

Became the first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope.

Christopher Columbus

1492

"Discovered" the Caribbean

Pedro Alvares Cabral

April 21, 1500

Accidentally discovered Brazil

Juan Ponce de Leon

March 27, 1513

He discovered the State of Florida

Hernando Cortes

1519

He was a Spanish conquistador who assembled an army from the Spanish Colonies consisting of 600 men, 15 horsemen, and 15 cannons. Through decisive use of superior weapons and native assistance, also the help of European disease which had already wrecked ative populations, successfully conquered the Aztecs capturing Montezuma II.

Willem Barendsz

1595

He explored the Arctic

Reformation

Martin Luther

1486 - 1546

German monk, was the first to force the issue of the immorality of Church corruption.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Founded Calvinism in Geneva, Switzerland.

Lutheranism

1517 - Present

Stresses education for all, including females. Salvation is attained by faith alone, instead of through works.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Reformation started as a religious movement, but became political and as a result had economic and social impacts

95 Theses

1517

Attacked the ideas of salvation through works, the sale of indulgences, and the collection of wealth by the papacy.

Excommunication

1520

Pope Leo X demanded that Luther stop preaching, which Luther refused.

Counter-Reformation

1530 - 1648

The Catholics, enraged at the rise of Protestantism and determined to restore their control over European society, began their reform movement, which gained momentum in Italy. The Catholic Church worked to reform, reaffirm their key beliefs, and then defend their ideology. It is important to recognize that they changed NOTHING about their core beliefs.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Formed by Pope Paul II and Charles V Habsburg of Austria, convened a general church council at Trent that met sporadically between 1545 and 1563. The Council reasserted the supremacy of clerics over the laity. Established seminaries in each diocese to train priests. Reformed indulgences, though the process was continued. Eliminate pluralism, nepotism, simony, and other similar problems from the church.

Religious Wars

Spanish Inquisition

1478 - 1834

Spanish Reconquista

1492

Ferdinand and Isabella forcibly expelled Jews and Muslims

Religious Wars in Europe

1525 - 1648

Europe was plagued by wars of religion. Even though religion was given as the reason for war, there were many other reason as well. Including: land, money and economics, political power, natural resources, and more
included the Hussite rebellion, and missionaries and conquistadors versus Native Americans

Peasants' War

1525

Holy Roman Empire

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1555

an ongoing fight between the Holy Roman Empire and the Turks

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Declared the Prince's religion to be the official religion of a region or country. This resulted in the acceptance of toleration of Lutheranism in Germany by Catholics. When a new ruler of a different religion took power, large groups had to convert religions.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

1559

Spain and France agreed to stop fighting with each other in order to unite against their common Protestant threat, particularly Calvinism, which was considered more of a threat tan Lutheranism

French War of Religion

1562 - 1598

In France, a religious civil war took place between Catholics and Protestants. Resolved with the Edict of Nantes which reaffirmed that Catholicism was the official religion in France, but also granted a significant degree of religious and political freedom to Protestants.

Spanish Armada

1588

Catholic Philip II of Spain desired to remove Elizabeth I of England from the throne after her rise to power following "Bloody" Mary Tudor's fall to illness.

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Edict of Nantes which reaffirmed that Catholicism was the official religion in France, but also granted a significant degree of religious and political

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

was sparked by the Defenestration of Prague, at which Protestants threw Catholic ambassadors out of a window in the city of Prague.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Ended the last major religious war in Europe.

Dutch Independence

1648

Spain finally recognized their independence.

Absolutism

Dutch Golden Age

1570 - Approx. 1650

The Dutch were the commercial, shipping, and financial leaders of Europe.

Absolutism

1600 - 1750

Exemplified by the "Sun King" aka Louis XIV Bourbon of France, marks the rise of rulers throughout Europe who had absolute power over their nations. Mercantilism became the primary form of economy of the day, and the issue of religion disappeared in European wars, now replaced by the issue of the balance of power.

Stuart (England)

1603 - 1714

Spanning the rules of James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, and Queen Anne. Time when there was an absolute monarch in England

King Louis XIV Bourbon of France

1638 - 1715

1638-1715; Louis XIV Bourbon of France rose to power in 1643. Considered the Model of Absolutism. His goals were territorial expansion and the spread of Catholicism.

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Pitted supporters of the Parliament against supporters of the king, and at stake were both political power and control of English economics.

Commonwealth

1650 - 1653

Cromwell formed a new government called the Commonwealth. Democratic republic.

Protectorate

1653 - 1658

Cromwell formed the Protectorate, which was effectively a military dictatorship.

Peter Romanove the Great of Russia

1682 - 1725

Installed an absolute monarchy in Russia.

Edict of Nantes Revoked

1685

Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, stripping Calvinists of their rights in France.

Rise of Prussia

1701 - 1740

Prussia became the power in northern Germany, as opposed to Austria which lay in the south.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

There was a lot of confusion as to who was the Heir to the Spanish throne until Philip was recognized as the King of Spain.

Peace of Utrecht

1715

Louis XVI marries Marie Antoinette

1770

In hopes of making the Austrian- French alliance a force to be reckoned with Maria Theresa of Austria married her daughter, Marie Antoinette, to Louis XVI, heir to the French throne.....it didn't work if anything proved to be one of the central causes for the start of the French Revolution.

Baroque

Baroque

1600 - 1750

Judith Slaying Holofernes (Gentileschi)

1620

Judith Slaying Holofernes is a painting by the Italian early Baroque artist Artemisia Gentileschi completed between 1614–20.

Bernini "Ecstasy of St. Teresa"

1652

mystic nun in a trance in the height of religious rapture.

Pachelbel

September 1, 1653 - March 3, 1706

German Composer of the Baroque Era

St. Petersburg is constructed

1703

Age of Enlightenment

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Developed the Heliocentric or Copernican, Theory of the Universe, stating that the Earth revolves around the sun

Structure of the Human Body (Vesalius)

1543

a book by Andreas Vesalius that renewed and modernized the study of the human body

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Invented the telescope

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion,most significantly noting that planets' orbits are elliptical instead of circular.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

English Revolution shapes his political outlook
May be considered the father of the enlightenment: because of all the opposition he inspired.

On the Movement of the Heart and Blood (Harvey)

1628

By William Harvey on the circulatory system

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Refuted Hobbes, humanity is only governed by laws of nature, man has rights to life, liberty , and property.

Sir Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Newton's Law of Gravity, Laws of motion, the Newton Cradle

Age of Enlightenment

1650 - 1804

the Age of Science of the 1600s and the Enlightenment of the 1700s introduced countless new concepts to European society. These ideas continue to permeate modern society.

Leviathan (Hobbes)

1651

Book written by Hobbes on Political Philosophy.
life is "nasty, brutish, and short"- people are naturally bad and need a strong government to control them.

Two Treatises of Government (Locke)

1689

Life, Liberty, and Property
Justified supremacy of Parliament

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Stressed Religious tolerance

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Social contract
"general will"- government acts for the majority

Rococo

1715 - 1800

Art movement emphasized elaborate, decorative, frivolous, and aristocratic art.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Pitted Austria, England, and the Dutch against Prussia, France, and Spain.

Frederick II the Great

1740 - 1786

Frederick II Hohenzollern of Prussia declared himself "the First Servant of the State"

Spirit of Laws (Montesquieu)

1748

Checks and Balances on government, no one group having sole power

Treaty of Aix la Chapelle

1749 - 1756

preserved the balance of power.

Seven Years War

1757 - 1763

Austria and France allied in what was known as the Diplomatic Revolution. The war engaged Austria, France, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and Saxony against Prussia and England. The goal of the war was to annihilate Prussia. The Seven Years War is known in the Americas, as the French and Indian Wars.

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Came to power because Peter III failed to bear a male heir to the throne and was killed. Her enlightened reforms include: Restrictions on torture, religious toleration, female education.

Peace of Paris

1764

Prussia retained all of its territory, including Sileasi. France ceded Canada to Britain and the North American interior to Spain, and removed its armies from India. It did however get to keep its West Indies colonies.
At this point Great Britain became the supreme naval power.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Joseph II Habsburg of Austria could be considered perhaps the greatest enlightened ruler, and he was purely enlightened, working solely for the good of his country. He was anti-feudalism, anti-church, and anti-nobility. Even with all the good he did he failed because he tried to do too much too soon.

Abolished Serfdom

1781

Abolition of Slavery done by Joseph II

General School Ordinace

1789

required compulsory education for Austrian children, done by Joseph II

Age of Revolution

Age of Revolution

1745 - 1829

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

National Assembly

1789 - 1791

The Members of the third estate in the Estates General. These members tended to be from the upper middle class, or bourgeois, and were often referred to as "Jacobins" since they frequently met in Jacobin clubs to discuss the revolution.
The lower third estate, or the rest of the citizenry, led the fighting arm of the revolution and the National Assembly at this time. They didn't however, take part in the government.
The Urban middle class led the storming on the Bastille and the march on Versailles.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

which clergymen would eventually be required to swear an oath to in 1791. in addition to nationalizing church property, the Civil Constitution also abolished religious vows and turned all Church clerics (including monks and nuns) into civil servants who received their pay and assignments not from Rome, but from Paris.

Legislative Assembly

1791 - 1792

the provisions of the National Assembly established what was supposed to be a permanent constitutional monarchy, the Legislative Assembly, with Louis XBI as the monarch. However, the Legislative Assembly failed very quickly for a number of reasons. the lower third estate felt abandoned, and the Legislative assembly failed to fix the food and unemployment problems.

Convention

1792 - 1795

was an emergency republic with universal male suffrage. the leading body of the Convention was the Committee of Public Safety, who worked to suppress dissent and protect the revolution. Composed of 12 members, of whom the dominant individual was Maximilien de Robespierre. Was split into two factions: the Montagnards ("mountain") who were more radical and included Robespierre, and the Girondin which was more middle class.

French invaded Austria

1794

Directory

1795 - 1799

was the first constitutional republic, which had an executive body of five directors, as well as a bicameral legislative body consisting of the Council of Ancients and the Council of 500

First free elections were held

1797

The people of France astonished the members of the Directory by electing a majority of royalists to the legislature. ultimately ineffective....it's the thought that counts?....

Napoleonic Era

1799 - 1814

Consulate in France

1799 - 1804

Napoleon seized control and initially installed and enlightened despotism known as the Consulate. During this time he instituted a number of important enlightened reforms, most important of these, his Napoleonic Code. This provided freedom of religion, a uniform law codes, social and legal equality, property rights, and end feudal dues.

18 Brumaire (Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'etat)

november, 1799

out of fear that the Terror would return, Napoleon Bonaparte and Abbe Sieyes launched the coup of 18 Brumaire to end the Directory and instead establish the Consulate, there was little opposition

Romantic

1800 - 1901

End of Dechristianization

1801

The Empire

1804 - 1814

Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictato.

Confederation of Rhine

1806 - 1813

It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia in the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine. It lasted from 1806 to 1813.

War of Independance (Spain)

1808 - 1814

Restoration of Louis XVIII Bourbon

May 3, 1814

Congress of Vienna

September 1814 - June 1815

The Congress of Vienna was convened in 1815 by the four European powers which had defeated Napoleon. The first goal was to establish a new balance of power in Europe which would prevent imperialism within Europe, such as the Napoleonic empire, and maintain the peace between the great powers.

Socialism

1840 - 1860

Era of Realpolitik

1848 - 1890

Prussian War

1870 - 1871

French Revolution

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

the Revolting Paris mob stormed the Bastille. Bastille was a symbol of the monarchy.

French Revolution

Oct 6, 1789 - 1799

One of the most important events in both French and European history. Marks the rise of the 3rd class after centuries of paying high tax to the King. Centered around the weak King Louis XVI and the immature Queen Marie Antoinette.

Start of French Revolution

October 6, 1789

100s of market women (and men dress as women) marched on the Palace Of Versailles demanding the Queen's head and the King's immediate return to Paris.

Crown Abolished nicknamed "The Carpets"

1792

Louis Carpet, Widow carpet

Royal Executions

January 1793 - May, 1794

King Louis XVI- January 21, 1793~ After being accused of treason the King was beheaded.
Marie Antoinette- October 16, 1793~ After being accused of treason among other things, she was beheaded.
Princess Elizabeth- May 10, 1794~ Beheaded.

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety utilized the newly invented guillotine to kill tens of thousands of counter-revolutionaries.

Robespierre arrested and Executed

july, 1794

Louis Napoleon elected president

1848

World Wars

Pre-WWI, During WWI, Between WWs, WWII,

Darwin

1809 - 1882

French Inspired Revolts

1831

Irish Potato Famine

1845 - 1852

Crimean War

October 1853 - February 1856

Denmark vs Germany

1864

Seven Weeks War

1866

Franco - Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Impressionist

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1890

3rd Republic of France

1870 - 1940

Winston Churchill

November 30, 1874 - January 24, 1965

Adolf Hitler

1889 - 1945

World Exhibition

1889

Post Impressionist

Approx. 1891 - 1905

Russo Japan War

10 Feb 1904 - 1 Jan 1905

Bloody Sunday

January 22, 1905

Germany invaded Belgium

1914

Trench Warfare

1914 - 1918

Alliances

1914

Serbia & Russia, Britain, and France
Bulgaria & Germany

World War I

Jun 28, 1914 - 1918

Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

June 28, 1914

Started the finger pointing game and very quickly WWI

Submarine Blockade

1915

Lusitania sinks

1915

November Revolution

1917

Russian Civil War

1917 - 1922

March Revolution

1917

US enters WWI

4/6/1917

Treaty of Versailles (Armistice)

November 11, 1919

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany

1933

Adolf Hitler becomes Fueher of Germany

1934

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Germany annexes Austria

1938 - 1939

World War II

1939 - 1945

Germany invades Poland

1939

Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister

1940

Germany invades Norway

april 9 1940

Germany invades the Soviet Union

june 22 1941 - june 23 1941

US joins World War II

Dec 7, 1941

Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

D-Day

June 6, 1944

Yalta Conference

Feb. 4, 1945 - Feb. 11, 1945

1945-Present

Modern Art

1900 - Present

End of WWII

1945

Cold War

1945 - 1991

United Nations

June 1945 - Present

4th French Republic

1946 - 1958

Berlin Airlift

February 1948 - May 1949

Winston Churchill Prime Minister

1951 - 1955

5th Republic of France

1958 - 2014

Berlin Wall

08/13/1961 - 11/09/1989

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1962

Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister

1979 - 1990

Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall

1987

Fall of the Berlin Wall

November 9, 1989

September 11, 2001

September 11, 2001

Brexit

23 june 2016