The Middle Ages aka the Dark Ages, was a time that spanned 1000 years, starting after the fall of the Roman Empire and expanding till the Protestant Reformation
It was the first formal document stating that a King had to follow the laws of the land and it guaranteed the rights of individuals against the wishes of the King. This meant people couldn't be arrested, imprisoned or have their possessions taken away except by the judgement of his equals and/or the law of the land. This laid the way for trial by jury which means people are tried by their peers and guaranteed the civil rights of the individual.
The Magna Carta established the principle that the people of England, at this stage represented by the Barons, could limit the power of a King, if he was doing things that were not good for the country
Dante played around with the differences between Latin and Greek and his native Tuscan dialect.
Divine Comedy in Italy -1310
An English priest and professor at Oxford. He founded the Lollard movement, which argued that salvation didn't have to come through the Pope, and that the King was superior to and more important that the Pope and religion. One of the first to set out to translate the Bible into a vernacular language rather than using the Latin Vulgate.
Fought between France and England, over three main point: who has of the Gascony region in France, the fact that the French cloth production town rebellions were supported by England, and who gets to inherit the French throne after the death of King Charles the IV.
Kick started the Hundred Years War
Author of the The Canterbury Tales
Hit Europe in 1347, the Plague was primarily transmitted by fleas and rats. The Y. Pestis wetp across the continent, killing one third of the population by 1351.
He formed the Hussitcs, which attempted to bring about reforms like those attempted by Wycliff in England. He was burned at the stake for his views towards the Church.
There were three Popes: Pope Gregory XI, Pope Urban VI, and Pope Clement VII
The Council of Constance stepped in and called for the abdication of the three popes in power. Martin V was elected as a single pope, effectively ending the Great Schism
an intellectual movement that advocated the study of history and literature as a chief means of identifying with the glories of the ancient world.
Italian scholar, poet and early humanist. His sonnets debunked the Medieval conceptions and stereotypes of people. Supposedly the first Humanist
Wrote the Decameron, a short story about the lies of people living during the Black Death. The book focused on people's responses to the plague rather than God's wrath.
Post Plague Europe. This represtened a time when Europe sought knowledge from the ancient world and moved out of the Dark Ages.
Johannes Gutenberg created a printing press with movable type
was known as one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, as a result of his innovations in both art and science.
Italian Renaissance humanist philosopher and scholar. Authored the "Oration on the Dignity of Man," which became known as "manifesto of the Renaissance." Man has unlimited potential, and with his free will can be anything he wants to be.
Dutch humanist and theologian. "Handbook of a Christian Knight"
One of the most prominent and important artists of the Renaissance.
English lawyer, writer, and politician. Devout Catholic who wrote "Utopia"
Famous painter and architect during the Renaissance
A political treatise by Niccolo Machiavelli, was basically a "how to be a successful national leader for Dummies"
Created a school for the advancement of navigation, laying the groundwork for Portugal to become a leader in the Age of Exporation
Europe began their modern exploration of the world.
Became the first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope.
"Discovered" the Caribbean
Accidentally discovered Brazil
He discovered the State of Florida
He was a Spanish conquistador who assembled an army from the Spanish Colonies consisting of 600 men, 15 horsemen, and 15 cannons. Through decisive use of superior weapons and native assistance, also the help of European disease which had already wrecked ative populations, successfully conquered the Aztecs capturing Montezuma II.
He explored the Arctic
German monk, was the first to force the issue of the immorality of Church corruption.
Founded Calvinism in Geneva, Switzerland.
Stresses education for all, including females. Salvation is attained by faith alone, instead of through works.
The Reformation started as a religious movement, but became political and as a result had economic and social impacts
Attacked the ideas of salvation through works, the sale of indulgences, and the collection of wealth by the papacy.
Pope Leo X demanded that Luther stop preaching, which Luther refused.
The Catholics, enraged at the rise of Protestantism and determined to restore their control over European society, began their reform movement, which gained momentum in Italy. The Catholic Church worked to reform, reaffirm their key beliefs, and then defend their ideology. It is important to recognize that they changed NOTHING about their core beliefs.
Formed by Pope Paul II and Charles V Habsburg of Austria, convened a general church council at Trent that met sporadically between 1545 and 1563. The Council reasserted the supremacy of clerics over the laity. Established seminaries in each diocese to train priests. Reformed indulgences, though the process was continued. Eliminate pluralism, nepotism, simony, and other similar problems from the church.
Ferdinand and Isabella forcibly expelled Jews and Muslims
Europe was plagued by wars of religion. Even though religion was given as the reason for war, there were many other reason as well. Including: land, money and economics, political power, natural resources, and more
included the Hussite rebellion, and missionaries and conquistadors versus Native Americans
Holy Roman Empire
an ongoing fight between the Holy Roman Empire and the Turks
Declared the Prince's religion to be the official religion of a region or country. This resulted in the acceptance of toleration of Lutheranism in Germany by Catholics. When a new ruler of a different religion took power, large groups had to convert religions.
Spain and France agreed to stop fighting with each other in order to unite against their common Protestant threat, particularly Calvinism, which was considered more of a threat tan Lutheranism
In France, a religious civil war took place between Catholics and Protestants. Resolved with the Edict of Nantes which reaffirmed that Catholicism was the official religion in France, but also granted a significant degree of religious and political freedom to Protestants.
Catholic Philip II of Spain desired to remove Elizabeth I of England from the throne after her rise to power following "Bloody" Mary Tudor's fall to illness.
Edict of Nantes which reaffirmed that Catholicism was the official religion in France, but also granted a significant degree of religious and political
was sparked by the Defenestration of Prague, at which Protestants threw Catholic ambassadors out of a window in the city of Prague.
Ended the last major religious war in Europe.
Spain finally recognized their independence.
The Dutch were the commercial, shipping, and financial leaders of Europe.
Exemplified by the "Sun King" aka Louis XIV Bourbon of France, marks the rise of rulers throughout Europe who had absolute power over their nations. Mercantilism became the primary form of economy of the day, and the issue of religion disappeared in European wars, now replaced by the issue of the balance of power.
Spanning the rules of James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, and Queen Anne. Time when there was an absolute monarch in England
1638-1715; Louis XIV Bourbon of France rose to power in 1643. Considered the Model of Absolutism. His goals were territorial expansion and the spread of Catholicism.
Pitted supporters of the Parliament against supporters of the king, and at stake were both political power and control of English economics.
Cromwell formed a new government called the Commonwealth. Democratic republic.
Cromwell formed the Protectorate, which was effectively a military dictatorship.
Installed an absolute monarchy in Russia.
Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, stripping Calvinists of their rights in France.
Prussia became the power in northern Germany, as opposed to Austria which lay in the south.
There was a lot of confusion as to who was the Heir to the Spanish throne until Philip was recognized as the King of Spain.
In hopes of making the Austrian- French alliance a force to be reckoned with Maria Theresa of Austria married her daughter, Marie Antoinette, to Louis XVI, heir to the French throne.....it didn't work if anything proved to be one of the central causes for the start of the French Revolution.
Judith Slaying Holofernes is a painting by the Italian early Baroque artist Artemisia Gentileschi completed between 1614–20.
mystic nun in a trance in the height of religious rapture.
German Composer of the Baroque Era
Developed the Heliocentric or Copernican, Theory of the Universe, stating that the Earth revolves around the sun
a book by Andreas Vesalius that renewed and modernized the study of the human body
Invented the telescope
Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion,most significantly noting that planets' orbits are elliptical instead of circular.
English Revolution shapes his political outlook
May be considered the father of the enlightenment: because of all the opposition he inspired.
By William Harvey on the circulatory system
Refuted Hobbes, humanity is only governed by laws of nature, man has rights to life, liberty , and property.
Newton's Law of Gravity, Laws of motion, the Newton Cradle
the Age of Science of the 1600s and the Enlightenment of the 1700s introduced countless new concepts to European society. These ideas continue to permeate modern society.
Book written by Hobbes on Political Philosophy.
life is "nasty, brutish, and short"- people are naturally bad and need a strong government to control them.
Life, Liberty, and Property
Justified supremacy of Parliament
Stressed Religious tolerance
"general will"- government acts for the majority
Art movement emphasized elaborate, decorative, frivolous, and aristocratic art.
Pitted Austria, England, and the Dutch against Prussia, France, and Spain.
Frederick II Hohenzollern of Prussia declared himself "the First Servant of the State"
Checks and Balances on government, no one group having sole power
preserved the balance of power.
Austria and France allied in what was known as the Diplomatic Revolution. The war engaged Austria, France, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and Saxony against Prussia and England. The goal of the war was to annihilate Prussia. The Seven Years War is known in the Americas, as the French and Indian Wars.
Came to power because Peter III failed to bear a male heir to the throne and was killed. Her enlightened reforms include: Restrictions on torture, religious toleration, female education.
Prussia retained all of its territory, including Sileasi. France ceded Canada to Britain and the North American interior to Spain, and removed its armies from India. It did however get to keep its West Indies colonies.
At this point Great Britain became the supreme naval power.
Joseph II Habsburg of Austria could be considered perhaps the greatest enlightened ruler, and he was purely enlightened, working solely for the good of his country. He was anti-feudalism, anti-church, and anti-nobility. Even with all the good he did he failed because he tried to do too much too soon.
Abolition of Slavery done by Joseph II
required compulsory education for Austrian children, done by Joseph II
The Members of the third estate in the Estates General. These members tended to be from the upper middle class, or bourgeois, and were often referred to as "Jacobins" since they frequently met in Jacobin clubs to discuss the revolution.
The lower third estate, or the rest of the citizenry, led the fighting arm of the revolution and the National Assembly at this time. They didn't however, take part in the government.
The Urban middle class led the storming on the Bastille and the march on Versailles.
which clergymen would eventually be required to swear an oath to in 1791. in addition to nationalizing church property, the Civil Constitution also abolished religious vows and turned all Church clerics (including monks and nuns) into civil servants who received their pay and assignments not from Rome, but from Paris.
the provisions of the National Assembly established what was supposed to be a permanent constitutional monarchy, the Legislative Assembly, with Louis XBI as the monarch. However, the Legislative Assembly failed very quickly for a number of reasons. the lower third estate felt abandoned, and the Legislative assembly failed to fix the food and unemployment problems.
was an emergency republic with universal male suffrage. the leading body of the Convention was the Committee of Public Safety, who worked to suppress dissent and protect the revolution. Composed of 12 members, of whom the dominant individual was Maximilien de Robespierre. Was split into two factions: the Montagnards ("mountain") who were more radical and included Robespierre, and the Girondin which was more middle class.
was the first constitutional republic, which had an executive body of five directors, as well as a bicameral legislative body consisting of the Council of Ancients and the Council of 500
The people of France astonished the members of the Directory by electing a majority of royalists to the legislature. ultimately ineffective....it's the thought that counts?....
Napoleon seized control and initially installed and enlightened despotism known as the Consulate. During this time he instituted a number of important enlightened reforms, most important of these, his Napoleonic Code. This provided freedom of religion, a uniform law codes, social and legal equality, property rights, and end feudal dues.
out of fear that the Terror would return, Napoleon Bonaparte and Abbe Sieyes launched the coup of 18 Brumaire to end the Directory and instead establish the Consulate, there was little opposition
Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictato.
It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia in the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine. It lasted from 1806 to 1813.
The Congress of Vienna was convened in 1815 by the four European powers which had defeated Napoleon. The first goal was to establish a new balance of power in Europe which would prevent imperialism within Europe, such as the Napoleonic empire, and maintain the peace between the great powers.
the Revolting Paris mob stormed the Bastille. Bastille was a symbol of the monarchy.
One of the most important events in both French and European history. Marks the rise of the 3rd class after centuries of paying high tax to the King. Centered around the weak King Louis XVI and the immature Queen Marie Antoinette.
100s of market women (and men dress as women) marched on the Palace Of Versailles demanding the Queen's head and the King's immediate return to Paris.
Louis Carpet, Widow carpet
King Louis XVI- January 21, 1793~ After being accused of treason the King was beheaded.
Marie Antoinette- October 16, 1793~ After being accused of treason among other things, she was beheaded.
Princess Elizabeth- May 10, 1794~ Beheaded.
Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety utilized the newly invented guillotine to kill tens of thousands of counter-revolutionaries.
Pre-WWI, During WWI, Between WWs, WWII,
Serbia & Russia, Britain, and France
Bulgaria & Germany
Started the finger pointing game and very quickly WWI