Cold War

Events

Monroe Doctrine

Approx. 1823

It stated that further efforts by European nations to take control of any independent state in North or South America would be viewed as "the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States."

Policy of Appeasement

Approx. 1938

Germans retreat from Greece

Approx. 1944

Two rival groups left - monarchists and communists. They both resisted against the Nazis and want to rule the country.

Churchill sent troops to Greece

Approx. 1945

He sends troops into Greece to support the Monarchists. The king was returned to power.

Yalta Conference

February 4, 1945 - February 11, 1945

Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany surrendered.
Germany and Berlin divided into 4 zones
Hunt down and punish war criminals responsible for the genocide
Countries liberated from occupation by the German army could hold free elections
Big three agreed to join the UN
Eastern Europe should be seen as a 'soviet sphere of influence'
DISAGREEMENT - Poland and the border

President Roosevelt Dies

April 12, 1945

He is replaced by president Truman

Allied troops reach Berlin - Hitler commits suicide

Approx. May 1945

Churchill is very worried about Stalin

Approx. May 1945

He's worried about:
. Poland
. Vienna
. Greece
. The 12 million in the Red Army
. Causing WW3

Americans successfully test atomic bomb

Approx. 16th July 1945

Truman informs Stalin of this at the start of Potsdam

The Potsdam Conference

17 July 1945 - 2 August 1945

Churchill was replaced by Attlee halfway through so the conference was dominated by suspicion between Truman and Stalin.
Disagreements:
Stalin wanted to crippple Germany but Truman didn't want to repeat the mistakes of Versailles.
Stalin wanted compensation from Germany for the 20,000,000 Russian lives that were lost - once again, Truman was weary of this.
Soviet policy in Eastern Europe

Attlee and his Labour Party take over from Churchill

26th July 1945

Americans drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

6th August 1945 - 9th August 1945

Some argue this was to end the war quickly. Some argue it was to scare the life out of Russia.

Allies combine zones in Germany

Approx. 1946

Later became known as 'West Germany' in 1949

Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania all have Communist governments

Approx. 1946

They all owe their loyalty to Stalin

USSR protested to UN

Approx. 1946

USSR say that the British troops are a threat to peace in Greece. Nothing is done. So, the communists tried to take control by force - civil war.

British troops withdrawn from Greece

24th February 1947

British could not afford to fight in a civil war - Truman steps in and pays.

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

The USA was prepared to send money, equipment and advice to any country which was threatened by a communist take-over.

The Marshall Plan

Approx. June 1947

Truman believed that communism succeeded when people faced poverty and hardship. George Marshall was sent to assess Europe's economic state and he discovered that it was terrible. The countries of Europe owed $11.5 billion to the USA. Most countries were still rationing bread. Churchill described Europe as a 'rubbish heap, a breeding ground of hate'.

Marshall suggested that around $17 billion would be needed to rebuild Europe's prosperity. 'Our policy,' he said, 'is directed against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos.'

Truman put his plan to congress

December 1947

They refused to grant his money - they were concerned about his involvement in foreign affairs.

Allies reformed Germany's currency

Approx. 1948

Communists take over Czechoslovakia & Congress grants the money

Approx. March 1948

In March 1948, in Czechoslovakia, Anti-soviet leaders were purged and obe pro-american minister, Jan Masaryk, is found dead below his open window - communists say he fell, americans suspect he was pushed. Immeadiately, Congress accepted the Marshall Plan and made $17 billion available over 4 years.
Stalin felt that Marshall Aid would weaken his grip on Eastern Europe and make countries dependent on US dollars

NATO established

April 4, 1949

Monarchists in power in Greece

Approx. 1950

Monarchists in power but they're a weak government.

Communist North Korea invade South Korea

1950

Warsaw Pact

1955

USSR's response to NATO