European Integration 1945-1986


End of WWII + Yalta Summit


Yalta Summit: Sphere of Influences

Establishment of the European Union of Federalists


Aim: guarantee peace after the War

Introduction of the Truman Doctrine + Marshall plan


CEEC was founded Committee for European Economic Cooperation --> to manage the Marshall funds

Truman Doctrine was mainly caused by the Civil War in Greece (Communist vs Greek government)

Marshall plan was also introduced, for Economic benefits of big US Exporters

Treaty of Brussels


France, Britain, Benelux agree to a military alliance against possible renewed German Agression

The Hague Summit


Organized by the European Union Federalists, aim create a European Federation + maintain peace

Result: Creation of the Council of Europe + ECHR in 1950
--> not what the federalists wanted (not supranational, but intergovernmental)
--> their expectations were not lived up to

They realized that there was a need for a different approach for European Integration, you couldn't just ask the MS to give up their sovereignty

Creation of Nato


The Truman doctrine was very influential.

Establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany


Creation of the International Authority of the Ruhr


Founded to control the Ruhr area (important for weapon production)
France needed coal

Schuman plan


Goal: integrate France and Germany's steel production (+ IAR should be deleted), BUT France wanted access to Germany's coal + problem of the IAR and Germany's independence are solved
+ it would connect France & Germany in a way that they could not fight each other again

For Germany: they wanted international acceptance (+ they wanted to get rid of the IAR)

Benelux: mainly economic reasons

Italy: they also wanted international acceptance (+possibility to build the economy)

Britain: were not interested
x they felt they were a superpower
x nationalisation of the coal industry
x clumsy diplomacy (Monnet first informed US and then UK)
Did the US have any role: Yes, they set an ultimatum to Germany --> The US pushed the process (breakup of the cartel of the Ruhr Area)

Foundation of ECSC


the IAR could not remain in place, once Germany became independent
The European Coal and Steel Community is founded

Pleven Plan (EDC)


Why did they come up with the European Defence Community (at the same time with the ESCS):
x Korean War (same thing could happen to the Federal Republic of Germany)
--> consequently the US ask for the rearment of Germany (Shock to France)

With the idea of the EDC, the need for the European Political Community became apparent, the French didn't want this)

Because this was so cooperated, Monnet wanted
2. EDC (& EPC)

Establishment of the Western European Union (WEU)


Treaty of Brussels should from now on include Germany and Italy (+ France, Britain & Benelux)

--> linked to the failure of the EDC and EPC

Messina negotiations


Discussion about the creation of a common market --> broader coopearation, doing away with all the customs etc.
France is not very interested, but under international pressure it changes its mind
x Suez Canal
x War in Algeria
x Hungary
--> France felt that they needed the other European countries to be successfull

France's requirement:
They wanted next to the Common market, also a market for agriculture - Why?
--> It was expected that Germany would be so competitive, that France's agricultural sector could not stand it --> Subsidies from Germany to France
Atomic Energy

The Rome Treaties (EEC, Euratom)


Two treaties:

Acceleration agreement


Negotiations about the Fouet Plan


Negotiations about the Fouet plan (intergovernmental defence cooperation (<----> instead of supranational). France was the leading power (Germany and Benelux are in no position). If Britain joined they could not hold the leading power. De Gaulle did not want the British on board

De Gaulle's veto of Britain's accession ('The 1963 Crisis)


He now finally could veto their accession, because Britain had purchased missiles from the US. He considered this as a sign that Britain did not want to cooperate with its European allies

Signature of the Merger Treaty


ECSC, ECC, Euratom become the European Community (EC)

The 'empty chair crisis'


France temporarily withdraws its participation in the Council of Ministers.
In response to the idea that there would be a budget for the EEC, to be controled by the EP. France refused this. They wanted that the MS controlled the EEC, by means of national contributions to the ECC. He refused the complete supranationalism idea

Luxembourg Compromise


x Each MS could veto in cases of national interest (no QMV)
x Agricultural contributions remained the power of the MS

The Hague Summit


Attempt to revive the European Integration
Three aims:
1: Completion
--> EC got its own budget
2. Widening:
--> 1/1/1973: Britain, Denmark and Ireland become part of the EC
3. Deepening:
x EMU is a failure
x European Political Co-operation based on the plan fourchet (interngovernmental working) is a success

Dark ages of European Integration

1969 - 1979

Main cause= Recession (caused by the OPEC)
Mainly intergovernmental organisation, not supranational

Accession of Britain, Denmark & Ireland to the EC


Creation of European Council


= Sign of intergovernmental organisation

Direct elections of the European Parliament


Accession of Greece to the EC


Why did Greece join?
--> EEC wanted to ensure democracy in Greece

Meeting @ Fontainebleu


The British got their budget rebate.
The meeting here paves the way for the further European integration

Delors proposes the 1992 Plan


The Idea of the Single European Act to create the internal market

Accession of Spain & Portugal