European integration 1945-1986


International Authority for the Ruhr founded

april 1945

European union of Federalists was formed


=> wanted to create federal constitution for Europe as part of a more distant plan for global unity

Severe winter

november 1946 - february 1947

=> unrest in several west European countries that was exploited by indigenous communist parties

The Marshall Plan announced

5 june 1947

Organization for European Economic Co-operation set up

april 1948

highkey forced by USA through Marshall Plan

The European Congress took place

may 1948

@ the Hague => led to creation of the Council of Europe

Foundation the Council of Europe


intergovernmental organization

Federal Republic of Germany Founded

May 23 1949

=> French policy had to be rethought

The Schuman Plan proposed

may 1950

Outbreak Korean War

june 1950

=> concern future defence of Western Germany

ECSC came into operation

july 1952

EEC Treaty came into operation

1 January 1958

=> specified a precise timetable for the progressive reduction of internal tariffs


march 1959

=>Council of Ministers refused the High Authority emergency powers to deal with the crisis -> collapse of morale in HA

Euratom began work


(context had already changed!!!)

Agreement to accelerate CET + create CAP

12 May 1960

Council of Ministers accepted proposal Commission

de Gaulle proposed intergovernmental political co-operation


launched negotiations on the 'Fouchet Plan'

British gov decided to apply for EEC membership

July 1961

The 1963 Crisis

January 1963

President de Gaulle unilaterally vetoed the British government's application for membership EU

The 1965 Crisis

july 1965

=> de Gaulle withdrew France from participation in Council of Ministers in protest at proposal Commission concerning financing of the Community's budget

Luxembourg Compromise

January 1966

Changes leadership in FR&DE

april 1969

FR: de Gaulle -> Pompidou
DE: Willy Brandt became chancellor

The Hague Summit

december 1969

=> new summit

Ending of the convertibility US dollar

august 1971


GB, Ireland and Denmark joined EC

1 january 1973

(Norway didn't bc Norwegians rejected membership)

OPEC quadrupled price of the oil

december 1973

Presidents of the Commission

Walter Hallstein

1957 - Approx. 1967


Jean Rey

Approx. 1967 - Approx. 1970


France Maria Malfatti

Approx. 1970 - Approx. 1972


Sicco Mansholt

Approx. jan 1972 - Approx. dec 1972

(The Netherlands)

François-Xavier Ortoli

Approx. 1973 - Approx. 1977