Afghan History since 1979

Events

Pakistan-Afghanistan Border Fights

Approx. 1949 - Present

Hostilities between Afghanistan and Pakistan existed, when Afghanistan became the only country to vote against the admission of Pakistan to the United Nations. Little fights have been going on ever since and to this day too. Even though these are just skirmishes they can escalate as in 2014 when 50 militants where killed on both sides. Even though this doe not affect the general population directly, it affects the government.

Soviet war in Afghanistan

Approx. 1979 - Approx. 1989

This war lasted for 11 years. Insurgent groups fought the invading Soviet army. This was because they feared the collapse of the Amin regime. Between 850,000–2 million civilians were killed and millions of Afghans fled the country as refugees. The most went to to Pakistan and Iran since they accepted the most. The war is considered part of the Cold War. When the Soviets invaded the Americans funded a counter force. This was the insurgent group was called the mujaheddin. This group managed to fight the soviets and even won. This was a terrible decision for the USA since one of the members of this insurgency was Osama Bin Laden. He later on formed Al Qaeda and declared war on the USA. That meant the USA funded terrorism against themselves. But back in Afghanistan, this was a catastrophic event. The infrastructure was destroyed, millions of people ran away and thousands died. This also caused the government to be unstable since not much improved and coups were common. All this is seen in today's Afghanistan which is chaotic and destroyed and filled with terrorist groups.

Nur Muhammad Taraki's Death

14 September 1979

Taraki was a spokesman and politician during the cold war. His unpopular reforms were one of the causes of the Afghan civil war. His terrible and cruel power management resulted in his killing on 14 September 1997. Amin came to Taraki and arrested him because of a failed assassination attempt. He later ordered Taraki's death. Taraki was suffocated with pillows on 14 Sept. 1979

Operation Storm 333

27 December 1979

This was a giant plot to overthrow the Afghan President Hafizullah Amin. They did not like him because he opposed soviet views. It happened in Tajbeg Palace, Kabul, Afghanistan. Soviet KGB operatives stormed the Palace and assassinated Amin. The death toll was around 300 people although Russian sites put that number at 100. The result of the assassination was the installment of a pro-soviet president. This was the first phase in the Afghan war. If this would not have happend, the Soviet-Afghan war might have been avoided and more people would live today.

Mohammad Najibullah

Approx. 1987 - Approx. 1996

Before power Najibullah was the head of the Afghan secret service. His rise to power was unexpected but dramatic, like his reign. He was the one who official changed the country into an Islamic state, one month into his presidency. When the American backed forces entered Kabul, the president was given a chance to flee but he refused. The mujaheddin captured him and tortured him. They dragged him on the streets on Kabul and were publicly hanged in 1996

Afghanistan Civil War

1989 - 1992

It was the mujaheddin versus the Communist part of Afghanistan. It lasted 3 years and was caused by the chaos after the soviets left Afghanistan. After several years of fighting, the government fell in 1992. However, the civil war continued with fighting between the government, and insurgents such as the Taliban attempting to bring down the government that they accused of corruption. If this did not happen there might not be so much instability in the country, as it is now.

The Taliban Goverment

Approx. 1994 - Approx. 2001

The Taliban government began in a small village between Lashkar Gah and Kandahar. It came from the rubble of the Soviet invasion. It was primarily Pashtun (an ethnic group) and many other Afghan ethnicities were considered foreign in the eyes of the regime. In 1996 the Taliban finally controlled Kabul and at its peak, they controlled 90% of Afghan territory. It ended due to the North Alliance, which was a group in the north of Afghanistan, backed by the USA. This was a terrible government that scared the citizens of it for life

Operation Infinite Reach

August 20 1998

This was a code name for American cruise missile bombings on Afghanistan. The attack was carried out by the US navy in retaliation to a previous Al Qaeda attack. The navy targeted training camps, factories, anything that could help Al Qaeda. Overall the strikes failed since the senior Al Qaeda officials stayed alive and so did the Al Qaeda's morale. These attacks were mostly to kill Bin Laden even though he was not present at the time of the bombings. This affected the people since the morale of the general population went down. More infrastructure destroyed. Homes destroyed, many refugees All in all a disaster for Afghanistan.

Ahmad Shah Massoud's Assasination

09/11/2001

Massoud was a military leader in the Afghan resistance to the soviets. He was awarded the National Hero of Afghanistan and there is even a national holiday on the day of his death which is on the European 9/11. He died because of a suicide attack. The attackers were from Tunisia and blew themselves up at a meeting with Massoud. Assassination attempts were not rare at the time but this one hit the country hard. It affected the people since the morale went down as their national hero died.

Operation Enduring Freedom

7 October 2001

This was a systematic bombing campaign by the UK and the USA on Afghan territory. The purpose of the bombings were to remove the Taliban from Afghanistan. The USA and allies managed to drive the Taliban out of government but they were not captured. In fact, most ran to Pakistan to start military operations there. They managed to put a better government although the situation in Afghanistan was quite bad at the time. The infrastructure failed. The roads were destroyed. Many killed and wounded. This changed Afghanistan forever.

2004 election

2004

The new president Karzai was great for Afghanistan. For the first time in years, the economy was growing at a stable rate. The infrastructure was getting better and people became happier. They cared less about the terrorism and terrible thing going on, instead they looked to the future, and with the economy growing, it looked to be a bright future. He also forced countries like the USA to help Afghanistan on its war on terror and the USA has been helping since.