Anti-Miscegenation Laws

Events

Maryland Institutes the First Miscegenation Law in the U.S.

1661 - 1967

First Miscegenation Law is Passed in South Africa

1685

30 States Instituted Miscegenation Laws

1691 - 1967

Arizona (1865-1962)
California (1850-1948)
Colorado (1864-1957)
Idaho (1864-1959)
Indiana (1818-1965)
Maryland (1691-1967)
Montana (1909-1953)
Nebraska (1855-1963)
Nevada (1861-1959)
North Dakota (1909-1955)
Oregon (1862-1951)
South Dakota (1909-1957)
Utah (1852-1963)
Wyoming (1913-1965)

The Following States had their miscegenation laws overturned after the June 12, 1967:

Alabama (1822)
Arkansas (1838)
Delaware (1721)
Florida (1832)
Georgia (1750)
Kentucky (1792)
Louisiana (1724)
Mississippi (1822)
Missouri (1835)
North Carolina (1715)
Oklahoma (1897)
South Carolina (1717)
Tennessee (1741)
Texas (1837)
Virginia (1692)
West Virginia (1863)

Coining of the Term "Miscegenation"

1864

The term "Miscegenation" was ratified after the circulation of a "fake pamphlet" titled "Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro". After the spread of pamphlet, the term was used to separate the races in terms of sex, marriage, and cohabitation

Civil Rights Act of 1866

April 9, 1866

The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared that African Americans would become citizens and be granted equal protection of laws in regards to "contracts, lawsuits, trials, and property transactions"

Ratification of the 14th Amendment

July 9, 1868

The 14th Amendment "granted citizenship to 'all persons born or naturalized in the United States,' which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person 'life, liberty or property, without due process of law' or to 'deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws' "

Scott v. Georgia

1869

In Scott v. Georgia, Charlotte Scott, "an unmarried women of color" married, Leopold David, an unmarried white man from France. Though the couple claimed to be married, their inability to produce a marriage certificate allowed the Supreme Court to rule "Charlotte Scott was guilty of fornication"

Doc. Lonas v. State

1871

State v. Gibson

1871

In this Supreme Court Case, Thomas Gibson, a man "having 1/8th negro blood" married Jennie Williams, a white woman. The Court ruled "that the state ban on interracial marriages was constitutional. The ruling judge, Judge Samuel H. Buskirk, insisted that the Fourteenth Amendment was not designed to interfere with state power to pass domestic regulations"

Civil Rights Act of 1875

March 1, 1875

The law stated: "That all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude.” The second section provided that any person denied access to these facilities on account of race would be entitled to monetary restitution under a federal court of law"

Jim Crow Laws

1876 - 1965

McPherson v. Commonwealth

March, 1877

This court case solidified two regulations: 1) "A marriage between a white man and a woman who is of less than 1/4 of negro blood, however small this lesser quantity may be, is legal 2) A woman whose father was white and whose mother's father was white, and whose great-grandmother was of brown complexion, is not a negro in a sense of the statute"

McLaughlin v. Florida

1881

The Supreme Court Case ruled the cohabitation between two unmarried people of the opposite sex and of different races (i.e. white and black)

Constitution of North Carolina, art 14, sec 8

1883

Pace v. Alabama

1883

This Supreme Court Case decided, "If any white person and any negro, or the descendant of any negro to the third generation, inclusive, though one ancestor of each generation was a white person, intermarry or live in adultery or fornication with each other, each of them must, on conviction, be imprisoned in the penitentiary or sentenced to hard labor for the county for not less than two nor more than seven years"

State v. Tutty

February 4, 1890

This case, settled the Georgia II Code stating marriage relations between a white and person of African descent was forever prohibited and officially declared null and void

Immorality and Indecency Suppression Act

1903 - 1961

This Act prohibited "voluntary sexual relations for the purposme of gain between white women and Africans". If caught, the women could recieve a maximum of 5 years of labor, while the man could recieve up to 25 beatings

Racial Sterilization Act

1924 - 1967

The Racial Sterilization Act was created to control the breeding of the human race in an attempt to produce ideal members of society. During its implementation, the law was used to sterilized women who had a chance of producing children with birth defects. Sadly, outside of the law, the Act was used to sterilize mized African and German women from reproducing

Racial Integrity Act of 1924

1924

The Racial Integrity Act was used to "preserve the white race and protect it from racial mixtures". The Act focused on birth and death certificates to identify the race of an individual. This Act also enacted the "one-drop" rule. This meant if an individual had "one-drop" of African- American or Native American blood, than that individual would be considered that race

Perez v. Sharp

1948

In 1948, Los Angeles couple, Sylvesster Davis ( African American) and Andrea Perez (Mexican Decent) applied for a marriage liscense to later be rejected because (during that time period) Mexicans were classified and it was prohibited for whites and blacks to be married. Instead of going to another state to be married, Perez contested the denial and took her case to the Supreme Court. The Court ruled that the denial of marriage based off race alone was unconstitutional and went against parts of the 14th Amendment

Prohibition of Mixed Marriage, 1949

1949 - 1994

The first of many Apartheid regulations that worked to separate races. The Prohibition of Mixed Marriage prohited the marriage between a white person and a non-white

Civil Rights Act of 1964

July 2, 1964

This act, passed by President Johnson, "prohibited discrimination in public places, provided the integration of schools and public facilities, made employment discrimination illegal, and enforced the constitutionl right to vote"

Loving v. Virginia

June 12, 1967

Mildred and Richard Loving, an interratial couple from the Virginia, travelled to Washington D.C. to wed. After returning home to Virginia, the police were notified of there marriage causing both to recieve jail time. In an effort to suspend their jail sentence, the Lovings agree to leave Virginia "and not return fro 25 years". While away, the couple contested their sentencing, ultimately taking the case to the Supreme Court. In an unanimous decision, the Court ruled that the state's miscegenation laws were deemed unconstitutional and that it openly violated parts of the 14th Amendment

14% Increase in Interratial Marriages

June 13, 1967 - 2015

After the Loving v. Virginia Supreme Court case, there was an increase from 3% (1967) to 17% (2015) of intermarriages

Baker v. Nelson

1972

A Supreme Court case that challenged a Minnesota ruling that "gay couples have no constitutional right to marry"

"The State of Maryland Defines Marriage as a Union between a Man & Women"

1973

Outlaw of Same-Sex Marriage

1994 - June 26, 2015

Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)

September 21, 1996

A federal law that denies feseral recognition of same-sex marriages and permits states to refuse the recognition of same-sex marriages liscenses

Marriage Equality Act

June 26, 2015

This act changed the previous definitions of a "wife" or "husband" (signaling that marriage was solely between a man and a women) to "spouse", thus leaving the termonology gender neutral and allowing same-sex couples to marry