AP Euro Timeline


Representative Assemblies

1250 - 1450


1267 - 1337

led the way to use of realism

Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

When the popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The phrase refers to the seventy years when the Hebrews were held captive in Babylon.

Great Famine

1315 - 1322

A terrible famine in 1315-1322 that his much of Europe after a period of climate change.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

A war between England and France from 1337 to 1453, with political and economic causes and consequences.

Black Death

1347 - 1350



A massive uprising by French peasants in 1358 protesting heavy taxation

Statute of Kilkenny


discriminated against the Irish, forbidding marriage between the English and the Irish, forbidding marriage between the English and the Irish, requiring the use of the English language, and denying the Irish access to ecclesiastical offices.

Jan Van Eyck

1366 - 1441

flemish painters
used oil based paints successfully

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

Period of Relative Peace and intellect throughout Italy that led to a lot of great art and culture ended with the sacking of Rome

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The division or split, in church leadership when there were two then three popes

English Peasants' Revolt


Revolt by English peasants in 1381 in response to changing economic conditions


1386 - 1466


revived classical figure with its balance and self awareness

Leon Battista Alberti

1404 - 1472

first scientific analysis of perspective
writes in third person
"Renaissance Man"
Wife should be constricted to the home

Piero della Francesca

1420 - 1492

pioneered perspective

Andrea Mantegna

1430 - 1506

pioneered perspective

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Italian renaissance painter and sculptor.
First apprenticed by Andrea de Vercocchio in florence.
Ideal Renaissance Man.

Desiderius Erasmus

1466 - 1536

"The Education of a Christian Prince" idealistic and practical suggestions
important roots of the protestant reformation

Niccolo Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Wrote "the prince"
Better to be feared than loved.

Whatever means necessary to stay in power.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Combined his father;s power and his own ruthlessness to build ip a state of his own in central Italy.

Hired Leonardo da Vinci and murdered his enemies.

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Utopia: the ideal society

Treaty of Tordesillas


The 1494 agreement giving Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chapel in 1508

Vasari (1511-1574)

1511 - 1574

The first to use "Renaissance" in print.
Italian painter, architect, writer

95 theses


Martin Luther's 95 theses against the catholic church

Transatlantic Slave Trade began


Spanish emperor Charles V authorized traders bring enslaved Africans to the Americas/

Baldassare Castiglione


The Courtier: sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman

Michel de Montaigne

1533 - 1592

developed a new literary genre, the essay-- meaning "to test or try"
Montaigne's Essays consisted of short reflections drawing on his extensive reading in ancient texts.

"Of Cannibals" impact of overseas discoveries.

Ivan IV

1533 - 1584

"Ivan the Terrible"
defeated the remains of the Mongol power. Added new land to the realm of Russia, laid the foundation of the multi-ethnic Russian Empire
After his wife dies he began to persecute those who opposed him. Killed nobility

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic attempt to stop the protestant religion and reform the catholic church

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Astronomer, built the most sophisticated observatory of his day.

Rudolphine Tables: about planetary motion
He believed all the planets except the earth revolved around the sun and that the entire group of sun and planets revolved in turn around the earth-moon system

Peace of Augsburg


temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation. Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

Brahe's assistant
believed that the universe was built on mystical mathematical relationships and a musical harmony of the heavenly bodies

Union of Utrecht


The alliance of seven northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.

Spanish Armada


the fleet sent by Philip II of Spain in 1588 against England as a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.

Edict of Nantes


A document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to calvinists, which helped restore peace in France.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, as well as the deadliest European religious war, resulting in eight million casualties.

Triennial Act


Compelled the king to summon Parliament every three years.

Peace of Westphalia


The name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and marked the end of large-scale religious violence in Europe.


1649 - 1652

A series of violent uprisings during the early reign of Louis XIV triggered by growing royal control and increased taxation.


1653 - 1658

The English military dictatorship established by Oliver Cromwell following the execution of Charles I.

Treaty of Pyrenees


ended the French-Spanish conflict, Spain was compelled to surrender extensive territories to France.

Test Act


Legislation, passed by the English Parliament in 1673, to secure the position of the Anglican Church by stripping Puritans, Catholics, and other dissenters of the right to vote, preach, assemble, hold public office, and teach at or attend the universities.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Determined to build the army and to continue Russian territorial expansion. Went to find new technology. Wanted to improve Russia

Peace of Utrecht

1713 - 1715

A series of treaties, from 1713-1715, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended the War of the Spanish, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire