led the way to use of realism
When the popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The phrase refers to the seventy years when the Hebrews were held captive in Babylon.
A terrible famine in 1315-1322 that his much of Europe after a period of climate change.
A war between England and France from 1337 to 1453, with political and economic causes and consequences.
A massive uprising by French peasants in 1358 protesting heavy taxation
discriminated against the Irish, forbidding marriage between the English and the Irish, forbidding marriage between the English and the Irish, requiring the use of the English language, and denying the Irish access to ecclesiastical offices.
used oil based paints successfully
Period of Relative Peace and intellect throughout Italy that led to a lot of great art and culture ended with the sacking of Rome
The division or split, in church leadership when there were two then three popes
Revolt by English peasants in 1381 in response to changing economic conditions
revived classical figure with its balance and self awareness
first scientific analysis of perspective
writes in third person
Wife should be constricted to the home
Italian renaissance painter and sculptor.
First apprenticed by Andrea de Vercocchio in florence.
Ideal Renaissance Man.
"The Education of a Christian Prince" idealistic and practical suggestions
important roots of the protestant reformation
Wrote "the prince"
Better to be feared than loved.
Whatever means necessary to stay in power.
Combined his father;s power and his own ruthlessness to build ip a state of his own in central Italy.
Hired Leonardo da Vinci and murdered his enemies.
Utopia: the ideal society
The 1494 agreement giving Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east.
Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chapel in 1508
The first to use "Renaissance" in print.
Italian painter, architect, writer
Martin Luther's 95 theses against the catholic church
Spanish emperor Charles V authorized traders bring enslaved Africans to the Americas/
The Courtier: sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman
developed a new literary genre, the essay-- meaning "to test or try"
Montaigne's Essays consisted of short reflections drawing on his extensive reading in ancient texts.
"Of Cannibals" impact of overseas discoveries.
"Ivan the Terrible"
defeated the remains of the Mongol power. Added new land to the realm of Russia, laid the foundation of the multi-ethnic Russian Empire
After his wife dies he began to persecute those who opposed him. Killed nobility
Catholic attempt to stop the protestant religion and reform the catholic church
Astronomer, built the most sophisticated observatory of his day.
Rudolphine Tables: about planetary motion
He believed all the planets except the earth revolved around the sun and that the entire group of sun and planets revolved in turn around the earth-moon system
temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation. Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands
believed that the universe was built on mystical mathematical relationships and a musical harmony of the heavenly bodies
The alliance of seven northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
the fleet sent by Philip II of Spain in 1588 against England as a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.
A document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to calvinists, which helped restore peace in France.
The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, as well as the deadliest European religious war, resulting in eight million casualties.
Compelled the king to summon Parliament every three years.
The name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and marked the end of large-scale religious violence in Europe.
A series of violent uprisings during the early reign of Louis XIV triggered by growing royal control and increased taxation.
The English military dictatorship established by Oliver Cromwell following the execution of Charles I.
ended the French-Spanish conflict, Spain was compelled to surrender extensive territories to France.
Legislation, passed by the English Parliament in 1673, to secure the position of the Anglican Church by stripping Puritans, Catholics, and other dissenters of the right to vote, preach, assemble, hold public office, and teach at or attend the universities.
Determined to build the army and to continue Russian territorial expansion. Went to find new technology. Wanted to improve Russia
A series of treaties, from 1713-1715, that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended the War of the Spanish, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire