us1h

presidencies

washington presidency

March 4th, 1789 - march 4th, 1797

vp: John adams
SOS: tj
SOW: henry knox
SOT: ah

adams presidency

march 4th, 1797 - march 4th, 1801

vp: tj

southern dominance

1801 - 1825

happened bc the capital was in the south, next three presidents were from virginia (virginia dynasty), and westward expansion=more settlers=more republicans

jefferson presidency

march 4th, 1801 - march 4th, 1809

vp: aaron burr

what he changed: cut costs, reduced size of military, reduced expenses for social functions, eliminated internal bank, lowered influence of national bank, believed in free trade

madison presidency

march 4th, 1809 - march 4th, 1817

end of fed party

1814

New England's influence on gov't was going away
new england blocked military draft, boycotted federal bond sales to finance the war
Hardford convention really helped end it

monroe presidency

march 4th, 1817 - march 4th, 1825

domestic things

american revolution

Approx. 1775 - 1783

each colony had its own government, own constitutions
ppl had allegiance to their own colony, not the "usa" as a whole
-made it hard to make a system that everyone agreed with
the war combined the colonies towards a common goal
north was v democratic

AOC was made

november 17, 1777

took awhile to get everyone on the same page

articles of confederation rule

march 1st, 1781 - june 21st, 1788

much disagreement about the role of the national gov't, so they created this

continental congress drafted them for the states as a whole

set of laws, two levels of government (state and national)
was a confederation: alliance between sovereign states
gave the new country the right to declare war, sign treaties, ect.
each state had 1 vote, needed 9/13 vote to make decisions (bad bc its hard to get that much)

good:
sep of power
states have votes
plan to divide up territory
natural rights protected
prevented tyranny
states can function on their own

problems:
1) political and economic
-lacked national unity
-didn't recognize population differences
-huge debt, currency became worthless. (happened bc revolutionary war)
-no taxing power for national gov't, needed to ask states to tax them, ofc they decline
-congress had no power in trade

2) debt and lenders
-rich ppl lent money to the gov't
-wanted to raise taxes so they will pay them back
-high taxes hurt lower class
-debtors- wanted inflation so can pay debts easily
-creditors- wanted to keep value of money the same so the money wouldn't loose its value

3) foreign relations problems
-lack of state support for national issues
-american couldn't repay debt to british, so they would not compensate for land lost in the great lakes
-spanish closed mississippi to american navigation
-couldn't trade through the river
-southerners wanted mississippi
-northerners didn't (why)
-congress was too weak to resolve

they were afraid to give national gov't too much power bc were scared of monarchy

land ordinances in 1787

1787

some states wanted land by the Appalachian mountains
some states were scared that if they claimed the land, would overpower
AOC wasn't ratified until states turned over western land

Land Ordinance of 1787- established plan for western land, settles can purchase farmland in the west
Northwest Ordinance of 1787- gave process for dividing up territories + omission of new states

blueprint for future growth
overlooked native americans

philadelphia convention

may 1787

fights btw states on taxes and goods
1786- alex ham and james madison called a meeting to discuss problems
only 5 states arrived
then called another convention
Shay's Rebellion happened, then all the states (except RI) came to the next one

at the philadelphia state house
all states except RI arrived, 55 delagates
windows were closed due to eavesdroppers
rich white men (shocking)

Washington was elected presiding officer by unanimous vote
within 5 days, decided they needed to make a new gov't

constitution was made

sept 17, 1787

took 4 months to make
submitted to the states for approval

THINGS IN THE CONST

had federalistic values (balance btw state and national gov't)

national gov't can... (delegated powers)
-control foreign affaits
-provide national defense
-regulate trade btw states
-coin money

state gov'ts can... (reserved powers)
-provide/supervise education
-marriage laws
-regulate trade in state

both gov'ts can... (concurrent powers)
-tax
-borrow money
-pay debt
-establish courts

branches:
-legislative- make laws
-executive- carry out laws
-judiciary- interpret the law

Electoral college
-upper class didn't trust lower class decide on presidents
-popular vote in state decided party electors voting for them
-# of electors- number of congressmen in state
-electors were decided by the person/party of the person running

Madison's Virginia plan
-voters elect lower house, lower house elects upper house
-representation based on population
Patterson's New Jersey Plan
-states have equal vote
Roger Sherman's Great Compromise
-used in the Const
-two house system
-upper house- chosen by state legislatures, 2 per state
-lower house- chosen by ppl, based on population

south wanted slaves to count as ppl, north didn't
three fifths compromise: slaves count as 3/5 of a person

congress could regulate trade but couldn't interfere w it

slave trade lasted for 20 years

constitution was ratified

june 21, 1788

ppl were scared of the const bc were scared of the new ideas
ratification needed 9/13 states approval

Federalists
g wash, j madison, a hamilton
approved the constitution, wanted seperation of powers
small states with weak economies and businesses that trades favored the const
The Federalist- 85 essays abt how the const is good and explained it
-written by ah, jm, jj
-published in NY news papers: helped them decide yes to const
-v well organized

anti-federalists-
p henry, s adams, rh lee
opposed the const, didn't want a strong central gov't, scared that the const couldn't help everyone, would have a lack of protection of individual rights
rural areas thought taxes would increase w the const
large states w strong economies liked it at first bc they had freedom with the AOC
Letters from the Federal Farmer
-famous AH paper
-by rh lee
taked about protection of rights, unreasonable searches of homes, and right to trial

AF wanted the bill of rights because the constitution weakened the states
made the bill of rights so the states would agree to the constitution

Delaware- first to ratify (dec 1787)
AF tries to get big states from agreeing
F tries to convince big states to vote yes

NY agreed by slim margin
became a reality in 1789

protective tariff on whiskey

1789

ah put protective tariff on whiskey to encourage american production

Judiciary Act of 1789

1789

established the federal courts and its structure
6 members of supreme court
supreme court settles disputes between states
13 district courts

BOR made

sept 1789

sent to state legislature for ratification

capital moves to washington dc

1790

moved so south would agree to financial plan

excise tax on whiskey

1791

to raise money to get rid of debt. caused whiskey rebellion. whiskey was a huge product, so farmers were very mad at this. 1794- pennsylvania refused to pay tax

bill of rights were ratified

dec 1791

12 amendments went to state legislature for ratification

Amendment 1 – Freedom of Religion, Speech and the Press
Amendment 2 – Right to Bear Arms
Amendment 3 – Housing of Soldiers
Amendment 4 – Protection from unreasonable Search & Seizures
Amendment 5 – Protection of rights to Life, Liberty & Property
Amendment 6 – Rights of accused persons in Criminal Cases
Amendment 7 – Rights in Civil Cases
Amendment 8 – Excessive Bail, Fines and Punishments Forbidden
Amendment 9 – Other Rights kept by the People
Amendment 10 – Undelegated powers Kept by the States and the People

NA and slaves were not included, women weren't mentioned
expansion of democracy came from later amendments

first textile factory

1793

made in rhode island. made thread

cotton gin invented

1793

by eli whitney. it cleaned cotton so it wasn't hard to made
produced lots of cash bc cotton was in high demand
improved economy in south
boomed slavery, slave trade grew a lot

election of 1796

1796

Adams won
constitution said that runner up: VP (thomas jefferson)
growth of sectionalism: placing the interest of one over all (bc of political parties)

washington's farewell address

sept 16th, 1796

he said to avoid attachment to other countries and to not make permanent alliances

Alien and Sedition acts

july 4th, 1798

feds were suspicious of immigrants and those in support of France

Alien Act: 14 years of residency needed for citizenship, and pres can deport/jail undesirable aliens/ those who are suspect/ those who endanger the country

Sedition Act: set fines/ jail time to those trying to hinder the government. this can mean uttering, publishing, or writing things bad about the gov't.
-violated the 1st amendment (freedom of speech, press)

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

dec 24, 1798

washington dies :(

dec 14, 1799

death improved relationship with france (?)

election of 1800

1800

jefferson v adams

feds thought jefferson will destroy the gov't created
dr thought that adams will turn the usa into a monarchy

jefferson and aaron tied
HOR had to decide btw the two
hamilton wanted jefferson more than burr bc he thought he couldn't be the president, lesser of two evils
HOR decided Jefferson by a v slim margin

Jefferson wins!!

created 12th amendment: ppl must cast separate ballots for pres and vp

louisiana purchase

april 30th, 1803

jefferson wanted to buy new orleans and western florida from France bc of the ports since they were using them and this would resolve any problem in relations btw france and USA

france didn't want it anymore bc he lost Haiti and lost hope for land in the new world
Napoleon didn't want the land anymore so he sold it all for 15mil
-jefferson wasn't sure if it was against the constitution, but he did it anyway

feds thought this was hypocritical bc he wasn't following a strict interpretation
also they were mad bc all the new settlers would be republican
also raised question between slave and free states

lewis and clark expedition

1804 - 1806

jefferson sent lewis and clark to gather info about the western territory
-sacajawea helped them
-took 2 yrs 4 months

national road being made

1811 - Approx. 1825

road was from Maryland to Illinois
improved trade
finished in 1838

us starting manufacturing more

1812

war of 1812 and british blockade made US start manufacturing more. they were depending solely on trade for their income, and now the couldn't trade as much. so they started making stuff

era of good feelings

dec 24, 1814 - 1825

they fought the war without raising a huge army or falling into a lot of debt.
also just won battle of new orleans.
people had high spirits

hartford convention 1814

dec 25, 1814

feds were going to propose constitutional amendments to reduce the influence of the DR party, failed bc once they arrived at the convention, they were too busy celebrating the end of the war.

natives punished

1815

NA that supported Britain during the war were punished.

started true US dominance over the NA

the american system

1815 - 1825

system to combine north and south economies.
james madison presented the plan to congress to unite the naiton

plan:
-develop transportation/other internal improvements
-establish protective tariff
-resurrect national bank (unite currency)

house speaker Henry Clay promoted it as the American System
helped the country become more independent

south was mad at the high tariffs cause they thought the North was getting rich at their expense

tariff of 1816

1816

on foreign goods to pay for internal improvements
-north welcomed tariff so ppl would buy their goods instead
-south/west disagreed because wanted the low priced goods
part of the american system

second BUS

1816

second national bank was made, v little disagreement
established a national currency, improved trading
part of the american system

rush-bagot treaty

april 1817

demilitarized boarder of US and Canada
soothed us brit relations
after war of 1812

Convention of 1818

1818

fixed the US boarder w Britain.
49th parallel split canada and usa
jointly occupied land west of the rockys (oregon territory) with Britain for 10 yrs, east of the rockys were usa's
helped get rid of tension w the british

missouri compromise

1820

territory becomes a state when population is more than 60k
1817- 10 free states, 10 slaves states
-1818 Illinois became 11th free state
bill had Missouri gradually free slaves
-South felt a threat to their power to they blocked the bill
Alabama was admitted as the 11th slave state
South thought north was trying to end slavery
North thought south was plotting to admit new territories

Missouri Compromise:
missouri- free
louisiana-slave
36 degrees 30' north latitude divides free and slave territory

weaving factories were made

1820

weaving factories were starting to be made, huge manufacturing center, many worked here

monroe doctrine

1823

Spain and Portugal defeated Napoleon in 1815
European powers wanted to reclaim former colonies in Latin America
Russians were establishing ports in California
Monroe Doctrine- precedent Monroe established principles to not deal with affairs in Western Hemisphere and stay out of everything for safety

british helped enforce monroe doctrine bc didn't want other european countries to gain more power. usa couldn't have enforced the doctrine without Britain's help

caused the usa to have a lot more pride bc they felt more in control and powerful

erie canal

1824 - Approx. 1826

huge port from the ocean to lake erie, greatly helped transportation

first steam locomotive

1825

was invented

france things

franco-american treaties

1778

alliance between France and USA. was made when France was under monarchial rule. had a military alliance

french revolution

1789 - 1799

when the people of France fought back and wanted a republican rule instead of a monarchy.
Federalists: didn't like it, thought they were unstable and was unsafe to support
Republicans: should support them because they want a democratic rule, which is what we wanted. also bc we had a treaty w them. also they helped us in the american revolution and we should return the favor
washington took a middle position, cautious optimism

caused orders in council

better relations w france

Approx. 1793 - Approx. 1794

happened because France opened ports in the Caribbean to US shippers
by 1794- britain seized over 300 US ships, impressment, also refused to abandon forts in the northwest even though Treaty of Paris said they must
also, they gave native americans weapons to fight them

french and british war

1793 - 1814

france declared war on britain

jefferson said we must oblige to the military alliance of 1778 since it was between the people of the nations, and nothing says that the french were dangerous yet

hamilton said the alliance was void because it was made witht he previous government, and the new french gov't was unstable

genet comes to usa

1793 - 1794

french minister Edward Genet comes to the usa and rallies support for the new french republic on his journey from south carolina to pennsylvania
hamilton wanted him to leave bc recognizing him would imply recognition of the new government in France
jefferson favored receiving Genet and recognizing the new gov't

set precedent: US must recognize foreign leaders

neutrality proclamation

april 22, 1793

Washington was neutral about the two countries

caused by french revolution

created the neutrality proclamation so they can pursue relations that were friendly and impartial. neutrality!!

gave president the right to proclaim neutrality, but cannot enforce it. legislative branch must sign off to enforce it

bad relations with france

Approx. 1795 - Approx. 1799

french were mad about jay treaty, saw it as an alliance
french seized american ships
xyz affair happened. ouch

xyz affair

Approx. 1797 - Approx. 1798

adams send charles pickney, john marchall, and elbridge gerry to france to negotiate a settlement
foreign minister Charles Talleyrand sent three mysterious emissaries to demand 250k before he would recognize the men
usa refused
called the XYZ affair bc the three frenchmen who are not named

usa was outraged, many wanted war
adams said no war
caused quazi war tho

adams refused war even tho the ppl wanted it

quazi war

Approx. 1798 - Approx. 1800

undeclared war, but lots of hostility.
us seized french ships, french seized us ships
us received British support

showed how the president can wage war without congress declaring war

france owns western territory

1800 - april 30th, 1803

napoleon bonaparte got spain to give back territory
napoleon wanted it to get money for his new colonies in the caribbean
-jefferson feared this would force a british alliance bc close territory could cause tension/ fighting over land, also they were using new orleans port

gave it up bc lost haiti due to a rebellion and lost hope for colonies in the new world

france and usa come to terms

1800

france doesn't have to pay for ships seized
military alliance of 1778 was void

Orders in Council

1806

-france= ordered Europe to stop buying British goods
-Britain= all ships carrying trade for the continent must stop in Britain to be searched for war materials
-France= all ships stopped in Britain were liable to seizure
-Britain= continued impressment

not good for usa :(

stuck between gb and france

1806 - 1810

constant fights between the two :((

Macon Bill #2

may 1810

reversed non-intercourse act

the first belligerent nation to agreed to cease its interference w US trade would be rewarded by an embargo on the remaining belligerent

France agreed, the US discontinued trade w GB

britain things

treaty of paris

1783

gb gave western land rights to the US bc GB had forts in the NW

french and british war

1793 - 1814

france declared war on britain

jefferson said we must oblige to the military alliance of 1778 since it was between the people of the nations, and nothing says that the french were dangerous yet

hamilton said the alliance was void because it was made witht he previous government, and the new french gov't was unstable

bad relationship with Britain

Approx. 1793 - Approx. 1794

happened because France opened ports in the Caribbean to US shippers
by 1794- britain seized over 300 US ships, impressment, also refused to abandon forts in the northwest even though Treaty of Paris said they must
also, they gave native americans weapons to fight them

neutrality proclamation

april 22, 1793

Washington was neutral about the two countries

created the neutrality proclamation so they can pursue relations that were friendly and impartial. neutrality!!

gave president the right to proclaim neutrality, but cannot enforce it. legislative branch must sign off to enforce it

Jay Treaty

1794

washington sent John Jay (chief justice) to britain to negotiate settlement
very controversial because what it accomplished and what it missed

-british evacuated northwest, but we had to pay them
-gained limited access to west indies
-british continues fur trade with native americans
-didn't address impressment

DR saw it as a federalist surrender to the British
HOR tried to negotiate the treaty, but they couldn't because only the Senate and the executive can negotiate treaties

caused some to not like the british for not addressing this, since this let to more violation of neutral trading rights and impressment. - war 1812

better relations with british

Approx. 1795 - Approx. 1799

french were mad about jay treaty, saw it as an alliance
french seized american ships

stuck between gb and france

1806 - 1810

constant fights between the two :((

Orders in Council

1806

caused by french and british war

-france= ordered Europe to stop buying British goods
-Britain= all ships carrying trade for the continent must stop in Britain to be searched for war materials
-France= all ships stopped in Britain were liable to seizure
-Britain= continues impressment

not good for usa :(

(btw- what france did was called the berlin decree)

was repealed before war of 1812, but usa didn't know that so they declared war

chesapeake affair

june 1807

HMS Leopard stopped the US navel vessel the U.S. Chesapeake
captain refused to have the british search for deserters from the british navy
british opened fire, killing 3 and wounding 18
this attack called for war, but jefferson said no

tried to get the british to apologize
they claimed responsibility but refused to bend on the question of impressment

Embargo Act of 1807

dec 22, 1807 - march 1, 1809

turned to an economical approach called a peaceful coercion- getting other countries to do things by threatening to stop trade

made Embargo Act of 1807- stopped all foreign trade

hurt us WAY more than it hurt them.
thousands were put out of work and everyone was mad

repealed in 1809

helped start american system

Monroe-Pickney treaty (failed)

dec 31, 1807

made to sooth US-british tension, signed by congress
wasn't signed by jefferson becuase it didn't address impressment and he didn't like Britain
britain was like wtf why did u decline

Non-Intercourse Act

march 1, 1809 - may 1810

forbade all trade with only GB and france instead of all of europe. smuggling became common

was repealed by the macon's bill #2
how long did it last

Erskine Argreement (failed)

june 1, 1809

britain must stop searching US ships for war materials if they stop trading with France
britain declined

(fake date to keep order in tl)

bad relations with gb

Approx. may 1810 - dec 24, 1814

war hawks- henry clay, john c calhoun, felix grundy
-wanted war w GB
also gb gave NA weapons to fight us with in the battle of tippecanoe

how they prepared for war:
-passed bills to outfit the army and the navy
-taxation increased to expand military
-cleared the ocean of US ships

Macon's Bill #2

may 1810

reversed non-intercourse act

the first belligerent nation to agreed to cease its interference w US trade would be rewarded by an embargo on the remaining belligerent

France agreed, the US discontinued trade w GB

british block us ships

1812

british ordered a blockade across the east coast, blocked us ships in, hard to trade with europe
(during war of 1812)

war of 1812

june 8th, 1812 - dec 24th, 1814

madison delcared war on Britain cause he though he was trying to weaken the American economy
also was against native american alliances with britain
war hawks were for the war.

war in canada
-military was unprepared, under-equipped, inexperienced, incompetent
-americans lost a lot, british took detroit
-later in the war americans started winning, took back detriot

war at sea
-us navy was small but strong, won a solid amount
-1812- british orderd a blockade across the east coast, ships were blocked in

white house burns down

1814

bc US won battle of yorks, british were salty and burned down the white house, capital, and other buildings
also done bc we hired ppl to harass us ships since they were blocking out trade
madison and others had to flee
(during war of 1812)

treaty of ghent

dec 24th, 1814

declared end to fighting!
didn't mention impressment or rights of neutral ships
but they stops doing that anyway bc alliance

good relations with britain

dec 24, 1814 - 1825

good relations!!
shared political and economic interests
Britain supported and enforced monroe doctrine
Britain began to respect usa, didn't impress, didn't interfere with our trade
"special relationship"

Battle of New Orleans

jan 8th, 1815

andrew jackson led huge battle where they killed many british troops, and only few US troops died. huge victory! even though the treaty of ghent was already signed lol

contributed to era of good feelings

native americans

northwest indian war

1785 - 1795

aka Ohio War, Little Turtle's War
btw confederation of indian tribes and the US
ended w treaty of greenville

1790

1790

NA wanted land rights and a say
so, tribe Little Turtle fought them in ohio and won

1792

1792

gw instructs troops to fight NA

Battle of Fallen Timbers

1794

Wayne defeated the Miami Confederacy (NA) at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, ended the NA resistance

treaty of greenville

1795

NA gave up most of land in Ohio in exchange for goods and annual pay (not fair trade)
ended northwast american war
pushed NA west
written in english
they had upper hand cause they just won the battle

Battle of Tippecanoe

1811

william henry harrison got 3 NA leaders drunk and had them sign away 3 million acres of land
Shawnee chief Tecumseh formed a confederacy to resist westward expansion
NA lost battle
weapons were abandoned by NA, usa found out they were from canada (britain)
started war hawks
helped war of 1812 cause we were mad at brits for helping NA

battle of thames

1813

shawnee leader was killed
(during war of 1812)

battle of horseshoe bend

1814

fought NA for land rights, led by Andrew Jackson
(during war of 1812

spain things

spain owns louisiana territory

Approx. 1790 - 1800

treaty of San Lorenzo

1795

spain signed a treaty w GB and USA saying that GB and USA won't take Louisiana territory
made by Thomas Pinckney - US minister to GB
also Spain had to give up all land east of the mississippi
USA can use mississippi to travel on

adams onis treaty

1819

aka transcontinental treaty
US got Florida
spain was declining, and now bc of the new usa british alliance, they just gave it up bc couldn't afford war

court cases

Maubury v Madison

1803

Adams appoints a bunch of federalists to the supreme court the day before his presidency ends
next day, not all of them are sent out, madison doesn't send out the rest of the appointments
maubury was appointed, wants his appointment, goes to court about it
marbury wants to issue a writ of mandamus - court will force madison to send out appointment
end: writ of mandamus (part of the Judiciary Act od 1789) was unconstitutional, repealed it, set precedent of supreme court having power.
started judicial review!
loss for feds bc couldn't force appointments, but in the long run was a win because fed supreme court now has lots of power

Fletcher v Peck

1810

Georgia sold land by contract, then they tried to take it back.
couldn't because states can't interfere with contract.
protected property rights

mcculloh c maryland

1819

second national bank was put in maryland, maryland didn't want it
maryland taxed it heavily to get rid of it
stopped them because supreme court thought taxing it heavily was the same as trying to get rid of it
us needed it, so they said w the necessary and proper clause and the supremacy clause that they can stop them, so they did
improved central gov't supremacy

darmouth v woodward

1819

king george granted a charter in the US
state wanted to override the charter, couldn't bc states can't override contracts
safeguards property rights for cooperations

cobens v virginia

1821

criminal case, supreme court overruled case in a state court
increased supremacy in fed gov't

gibbons v ogden

1824

gibbons got a federal license to use his steamboat
ogden got a license from new york
ogden wanted to be the only one
ogden lost, gibbons still got to use his license
congress has supreme power over regulating interstate trade

extra notes that dont rlly go in the tl

types of gov't

1780

Absolute Monarchy: one monarch has absolute power among the ppl, unrestricted power
-pro: no battle for power, little political view disagreement
-con: monarch can get corrupt, no one keeps the monarch in check, people don't have say

Constitutional Monarchy: one monarch acts as the head of the state within a constitution. there are other leaders as well
-pro: monarch can't get as corrupt bc constitution, no battle for power, little political view disagreement
-con: no one can keep the monarch in check, ppl don't have say

Direct Democracy: when people decide (vote) on policy directly
-pro: everyone has a say, equality
-cons: bad opinions may become to widespread and hurt the gov't

Representative Democracy/Republic: elects officials to represent a group of people
-pro: ppl can choose who makes their decisions
-con: not everyone has a say in everything
(what's the difference)

Confederal: state gov't has most power over the national
-pro: different values for different states are valued more
-con: not as united

Federal: power is balanced between the states and national gov't
-pro: more balanced power
-con: disagreement btw powers

Unitary: national gov't had most power over state
-pro: country is united
-con: states are not accommodated to their needs

Philosophers

1790

they influenced the way our constitutions were made

Plato
-believed in an aristocracy (small group of elite rules)
-power is in the hands of the small ruling class
-rep democracy

John Locke
-natural rights can never be taken away
-spoke out for freedom of thought, speech, religion, and property
-king did not hold absolute power bc natural rights
-liked rep democracy (only fit ppl have a say) and constitutional democracy

Thomas Hobbes
-thought ppl were selfish/wicked
-gov't was made to protect the ppl from their own evil
-democracy would never work
-absolute monarchy

Montesquieu
-seperation of powers theory
-gov't that was elected is best
-three groups of officials
-did not believe everyone was equal
-rep democracy

Voltaire
-liberal, free society
-despised religious intolerance
-believed in empiricism
-individual rights and personal liberties
-direct democracy

Rousseau
-defended social contract
-gov't should be responsible for supplying the ppl with freedom and happiness
-equality
-gov't acts on general will of society
-direct democracy

Beccaria
-helped reform the criminal law system
-against unjust and inhumain suffering/punishments
-opposed death penalty
-rep democracy