DNA's Role in History

Events

Gregor Mendel

Approx. 1865

Concept of hereditary material introduced

1900

Walter Sulton

Approx. 1903

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Approx. 1911

Established that DNA can be damaged by endogenous and exogenous agents

1928

Frederick Griffith

1928

Oswal Avery, Colin Macleod and Maclyn Mcarthy

1944

Erwin Chargaff

1950

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

1952

James Watson and Francis Crick

1953

Helical structure of DNA reported

1953

Link between mutagens and carcinogens established

1955

The discovery for DNA's lately damage by exogenous and exogenous agents

1958

Alkylating agents shown to react with and damage DNA

1960

Xeroderma pigmentosum identified as the first DNA repair disorder

1969

Apoptosis defined

1972

Ames test established to identify carcinogens via analysis of mutagens

1974

Virus proposed to be a cause of cancer

1975

Concept of oncogenes introduced

1981

Concept of tumor suppressor introduced

1984

Cell cycle checkpoints proposed

1989

Concept of gatekeeper and caretaker genes introduced

1997

Oncogene expression shown to produce replication instability

1999

Acquired characteristics of cancer cells defined

2000

Craig Venter and Francis Collins

2000

DDR reported to be a anti-cancer barrier

2005

Significance of replication stress and replication fork stability appreciated

2005

Multiple mutation in DDR genes identified in cancers

2014