=> God given kingship
Henry also probably influenced by his grandmother Lady Beaufort
=> would often be at church sobbing bc she believed her success was bc of God
=> patronised education + piety
Elton walked a close line with God etc.
Married soon after
Lord Mountjoy, Henry's tutor, had organised for him to visit Henry's nursery accompanied by his friend Thomas More
=> H8 clearly had a high level HUMANIST education (middle way => still Catholicism)
Henry a v good scholar, later on when Henry heir to throne Erasmus refused to believe that a letter to him was Henry's bc it was so perfect until Mountjoy proved it
Now Henry was heir to the throne
3 days before Henry turned 12
But age of consnet for a boy was 14 => could change mind for another 2 years
part of H7 paranoid attempt to make H8 king
In the new marriage treaty, did not record Katherine's claim to still be a virgin when Arthur died (as she later claimed)
According to the treaty her marriage to Arthur "was solemnised according to the rites of the Catholic Church, and afterwards consummated"
=> essential for Henry 7 bc now he wouldn't have to return dowry bc it was consummated => was a valid marriage
Gave his reason as the need to foster peace between England + SPain
said the marriage was "perhaps consummated"
=> but then later in a variant dispensation supposedly sent to Spain known as "the brief" it unequivocally said thtat it had been consummated
Bc it was his brother (not really)
=>was bc Ferdinand had died => Castile and Aragon may split apart
According to John Guy
During H7's reign Henry had objected to it as the pious former trainee bishop
=> H7 got pissed off
HAD obtained papal dispensation
Forbidden in Leviticus 18,20
Deuteronomy encouraged it
BUT it was generally accepted that the Leviticus was more important
English Church (plus Wales) was two provinces of the Western Church
(Canterbury and York)
Condition perfectly "satisfactory"
- monasteries generally well run
- bishops high quality graduates
=> the fact that the clergy dont expect change may make the reformation possible
Lollards had been defeated start of the 15th century with the help of the crown, English Bible banned 1407
Glyn Redworth points out that he was challenging the authority of the church even then
original oath of coronation swore to uphold church including its right to make laws binding on his subjects
he changed (his own hand) to uphold the Church's rights only so far as his royal conscience would permit and, most important, so long as these privileges were 'lawful and not prejudicial to his Crown or Imperial Jurisdiction'.
But Redworth does say that at the start of his reign Henry was "a devoted son of the Roman Church"
Had miscarried the year before
7 weeks later he dies
2 more stillborn
another boy who dies shortly after birth
"internationally, super loyal to the pope" Mac
=> given possession of Tournai as a reward on French border
Also supplied Cornish tin for roofing works at Pope Julius II's new basilica of St Peter's in Rome
Had been in the jail of a Church
Those most likely guilty claimed benefit of clergy
=> much anticlerical feeling in London
=> Henry took the side against the clergy and church priviliges
"by the ordinance and suffering of God we are king of England, and the kings of England in time past have never had any superior but God alone"- Baynard 's Castle, Nov. 1515
After wards he was "overheard cruelly taunting and reproaching her"
Got him the archbishopric of York when it fell vacant
along with a group of semi-public gaterhing of lawyers that the king had no superior but God
John Guy has argued "convincingly" -Redworth that it did happen
"alter rex" by foreign ambassadors
Mocks Catholic hypocricy when looking at "heretics"
claimed "supreme power as lord and king in the regality of Torunai without recognition of any superior"
Bishop of Tournai died => Henry wanted Wolsey
Pope wanted someone else
Pope in this istance just said ok
Mac says it was the "clash which didn't happen"
A girl, Catherine of Aragon's only child not stillborn or miscarried (which there were many)
=> Henry looks for reasons why God is punishing him with a daughter
"for Henry this would not do: England had never had a woman ruler before" Guy
=> wanted a formal discussion of the validity of indulgences
Henry AGAINST this
Potential king for Henry?
Showed to Henry that he was perfectly able of creating a son => must be Catherine
and senior clergy
announces the prospect of reform
But the "measures came to very little" -Guy
in the bull; Exsurge Domine
=> back to pope
Officially written by him
Mac says returning to loyalty to Rome after the Tournai dispute after being shocked by Luther
in response to Martin Luther's "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church"
-> claimed only 3/7 of the Catholic sacraments had been instituted by Christ + REJECTED PAPACY
King even refused to water down his vehement defence of the pope when More advised him
"we received from that See our crown imperial (and) we are so much bounden unto the See of Rome that we cannot do too much honour unto it"
For his Assertio
the Bible into English
then to Worms
Asks bishop of London Cuthbert Tunstall
Charles much more influence over Pope now (C of Aragon's nephew)
"The Enlgish reformation had begun" -Guy
Probs dropped her around 1525
Named a royal navy ship after her => already distancing from Anne
"a convert to the viewpoint o the evangelical religious reformers in Paris whose books- as well as the Bible- she read avidly in French"
She refused to sleep with him => not just another mistress
Anne then vowed to "give him a male heir"
=> unlike Fitzroy would be legitimate bc the parents would be married
Mac points out BEFORE his infatuation with Anne Boleyn
=> the forbidden marriage to his brother's widow
instead of Wolesy, behind his back => impatient
=> no more children
By 1520s had lost her figure
turned 40 in 1525
Wooding emphasises the lack of son for needing annulment so badly
=> if didn't, probs would have gone to another Wars of the Roses says Wooding
His own dad super paranoid + struggled
his insecurity shown by his brutal supressions of anything (p o g, the Poles)
=> concealed intention to make Anne Queen
believed the dispensation in 1504 was "in contravention of scripture and should never have been issued"
"Henry naively imagined that an annulment of his marriage would be straightforward"
-Louis XII of France had divorced his wife to marry Anne of Brittany
-Henry's own sister Margaret, widow of James V, had managed to have her second marriage dissolved
By Charles V's army
=> C of A's niece
"his plans turned to ashes"-Guy
=> Pope now Charles' prisoner
"it was a matter of time before (Henry) ceased for ever to be the pope's loyal son"
said "they had been in mortal sin in all the years they had lived together"
curse is lack of SONS
=> examined the original hebrew, had been a mistranslation
(original Latin translation said children)
=> confirmed Henry's suspcicions
20:21 says must not marry brother widow
says the one in Deuteronomy was "merely an ancient custom of the Jewish people, not binding on Christians"Guy
By this time Knight and Wolsey had failed to convince the pope to annul
"The Obidience of the Christian Man"
=> said king should not submit to the pope
Henry said it was "a book for me and all kings to read
Despite Wolsey's urging, "felt he had to satisfy God, rather than the pope", he refused to do annulment over a "legal quibble" -Mac
Cardinal Campeggio and Thomas Wolsey
=> "collapses" bc Campeggio says really must go back to Rome to adjourn until September, hot in Italy and that is what would happen
=> would be enough time for C of A to intercede with Pope to get the trial to go back to Rome (Charles V's aunt)
By its collapse Mac said that the King had lost complete faith in the papacy
Vatican now effectively a "satellite" to Charles' emprie
Thomas More chosen as new lord chancellor
=> would not be won over to the annulment
"Anne, meanwhile, was largely responsible for refocusing Henry's strategy on the divorce"
=> showed him selectred passages from William Tyndale
Guy says Henry said he was a "fundamental obstacle to change"
"By 1530, when it was becoming apparent that Henry VIII's religious allegiances were shifting somewhat, Barton opposed his policies in relation to the church, asserting that the rights, estates, and revenues of the pope should be protected, and that heretics should be condemned and their books destroyed" -dnb Dianne Watt
=> even suggested Henry would die of plague + go to hell
Collectanea satis copiosa
On King Lucius/ King Arthur
"the pope was no more than the 'bishop of Rome'"-Guy
=> supreme in his dominions
whereas the King of E was "God's vicar on earth"
=> supreme in his dominions
Willaim I time had been kings top of their dominions
King Lucius I (non existant) had been the first Christian king, given Lex Britanniae by Pope Eleutherius
then 12th and 14th centuries Pope Innocent III and Boniface VIII had proclaimed themselves "superior to temporal princes"Guy
to have the case at a "neutral place" (not Rome/England) for the case
For abuses of power
And they must recognise him as "Supreme Head and Sole Protector of the English Church"
Payed the fine
Declared him "Supreme Head as far as the law of Christ allows" => qualification
Based on material contemporary with 1529 Blackfriars trial points out Maccy
"steered by a copterie of stellar academicecs led by Edward Fox and Thomas Cranmer"
Based on material CONTEMPORARY with the 1529 Blackfriars trial
=> not Cromwell taking the lead => implementing Henry's schemes
Also the Collectanea, published for the masses in 1534 and emphasising an old testament king approach with Henry as kign, says Richard Rex and Pamela Tudor-Craig
Church of England gave up their power to formulate church laws without the King's licence and assent
Passed by the convocation 1532
More asked to be relieved of Chancellor next day
Alleged failing health
Really bc he was so against the schism
More evidence tot eh point that Henry came up with this idea EARLIER than Cromwell influentical
Condemned female rule => Mary/Elizabeth
A queen would have to marry and then the husband would take the throne for himself
Arranged to ratify a new Treaty of Mutual Aid
"masterminded by the Boleyns"
get security for split
Anne met Henry at Calais afterwards, presented as if already queen
partnered Francis in a candlelit masque
But French lobbying in Rome suffered major setback when Henry married Anne BIGAMOUSLY
she had been so confident of a divorce in sight after dancing with Francis
nun's prophecies, to ferment opposition
Prohibits all appeals to Rome
drafted + pushed through by Cromwell => implementing Henry's plan
George Bernard emphasises that it was the king who orchestrated these, not anyone else
She is newly pregnant
"spurred into action by her pregancy"-Guy
Henry sent Anne to give Francis the good news
But the French King "fumed" it made his task more difficult
(acc earlier than this considering marriage)
"tersely" informed her that he had married "the other lady" more than two months before
He is also made archbishop of Canterbury this month too
A daughter => not good at all
Henry "was bitterly disappointed"
"for the moment he turned a brave face towards the world
"A crescendo of opposition to Anne... had built up"
A woman was imprisoned for calling Anne a witch
Another called her "a goggle-eyed whore"
northern lord, Henry believed he would rise up against him on the eve of the Act of Supremacy
-> found not guilty
-> Henry just puts a huge fine on him and stops him going >10 miles from London
To root out "papists"
"After the break with Rome, Henry came to regard Wales chiefly as a haven for 'popishh' insurgents"-Guy
=> especially worried bc "Welsh levies and horses formed the backbone of the royal army"
Followed Act of Supremacy
Now high treason to threaten the royal family by words/ deny their titles
Guy says twas at Cromwell's suggestion
Outside the pale the Gaelic lords were "loyal Catholics"
sparks a revolt in Ireland by his heir Lord Offaly
Threatened to side with Charles V
Claimed 10k catholic troops were on their way to Ireland
Henry was "completely unprepared"
Took a "vast English army" until August 1535 to suppress the revolt
-1500 soldiers died
"It was a bombshell"
Henry now a bigamist
"If the king refused to take her back, he would be excommunicated"
Made Henry more determined
"no longer would he be prepared to respect other peoples' consciences"
Settles the crown on his heirs by Anne
Concluded with a clause with an oath requiring all males over fourteen to swear an oath affirming the "whole effects and contents" of the act-the act
=> included the acts preamble which declared Anne marriage valid + pope no right to meddle in the case
penalty for refusing was life imprisonment
put on trial by Cromwell
bc of the preamble about papal jurisdiction
"when honest dissenters like the leaders of the London Carthusians, Thomas More and bishop John Fisher refused to condone the king's second marriage or approve his new title of 'supreme Head', Henry showed no mercy"
God still angry at Henry
Meanwhile, Henry flirting with a new woman
soon dropped her for Anne's cousin
Henry declares himself "supreme head of the English Church"
Within 6 weeks Henry makes Cromwell his vice-gerent spiritual
=> unofficially with Anne Boleyn placed evangelical preachers and chaplains in key positions, including bishoprics
=> his factor in Antwerp, Stephen Vaughn, passionate Tyndale supporter
=> Henry would never accept justification by faith alone etc. "tight rope"
principal motivating causes (historians say) desire to serve king + commitment to the evangelical cause
Oath to supreme head by all males over 14
then all clerics and those holding public office
"to root out opposition"-Guy
by Miles Coverdale
unofficially dedicated to the king
"a risky enterprise, since Henry, in the very same year, backed a new edition of the Latin Bulgate, for which he wrote the preface and chose the typeface"
Cromwell offered the printers £400 of his OWN MONEY to get the Bible in all 8500 parish churches
Anne's brother George had been discussing possible marriage between Elizabeth T and the French King's third son
Against Henry from the pulpit
Strong supporters of the Carthusian order
called him "a great tyrant"
"In a fury, Henry decided to make examples of them and of four Carthusian priors."
=> priests clapped in irons, priors ordered to take newly devised oath saying he was Supreme head
=> they refused
They were dragged across London to Tyburn
Last minute effort to get them so terrified they changed their minds:
hanged them to almost unconscious
orders to hangman to disembowel one by one in fron of the tohers while still alive
Genitals cut off and stuffed into their mouths
Thy Cromwell's patroning English Bible was risky
"When Coverdale's Bible of 1535 presented Henry VIII as Josiah in its dedication, this was perhaps more than mere wishful thinking from a radical exile" => did see himself as old testament king
Elected after death of Clement sweeping majority
=> before Henry had hesitated bc didn't want o make martyrs out of Fisher and More
Fisher executed same month
The man responsible for these different trials, rigged More's trial, draughtsmen of Henry's legislation since 1531, "browbeat" the jury when they wouldn't convict the Carthusian priors at first:
Henry was said to be "very merry"
But 3 weeks later she miscarries again a MALE foetus
=> Anne blamed for shock of Henry having horse fall on top of him 5 days earlier (3rd major sporting accident)
=> unconscious for almost 2 hours
Not long before he would have trouble with ulcer on his left leg
says "I see that God will not give me male children"
=> maybe bc married before other marriage
"Henry took it into his head that God had damned his marriage to anne, which must be unlawful"
Bernard claims first suppression was a genuine attempt to "prune dead wood" => Pettegree and i not convinced
Wooding emphasises bc H saw them as likely to bare allegiance to Rome, not protestant views
Henry + Anne wear yellow satin "to flaunt their glee"
BUT it also means that Henry could marry again in a marriage that would be recognised thoughout europe
=> good reason to get rid of Anne
Redworth uses this to claim that it was Henry who chose to get rid of Anne, not a court faction
for using the wealth seized from small monasteries for the royal finances
=> should be used for schools, universities and hospitals instead
"he decided that she had spoken out of turn once too often"
For encouraging Henry to believe that he should supress the monasteries for his finances
She had no problem with the suppression but wanted the money to go to education, says Guy
Had one of her chaplains, John Skip, preach a sermon at Whitehall with Henry present
in it, he dismissed Cromwell as Haman => deceived King Ahasuerus into ordering a massacre of his Jeiwsh subjects
Even swiped at the king's interest in Jane Seymour => allies + family religious CONSERVATIVES
"Henry was fast losing control of his court" as Jane rose
Same day, Cranmer pronounced Henry's second marriage invalid
Two days later, Anne executed
Speaking to Sir Henry Norris, chief gentleman of the king's Privy Chamber
Loose talk got out of hand
=> next day Anne + Henry had a "furious row"
"the king claimed that Norris had cuckolded him"
"but the seeds of doubt were sown"
Cromwell wrote the accusations against Anne
"within a fortnight" he married Jane Seymour
"Jane's supporters were conservative- unlike Anne, she was certainly no patron of evangelical reformers"
Then parliament met nullified all of Henry's earlier marriages and claimed his daughters were illegitimate
=> invited by the pope to send delgates to a future Eneral Council fo the Churc at Mantua
But first had to reverse the break with Rome "Henry had the perfect opportunity to reverse the break with Rome
"many of Henry's subjects believed that, free of Anne, he would revert to his old self and repudiate the Royal supremacy. They could not have been more wrong"
=> refused to admit mistakes, forced Mary Tudor too admit illegitimacy
Cromwell carries it out
"Cromwell was in fact driven as much by his religious convictions as was Thomas More on the opposite side"-Guy
On the other hand, Bernard saying "Cranmer is more the King’s loyal subject than an autonomous mind, and Thomas Cromwell’s commitment to evangelicals more perception than reality "
"the very heart of Lutheranism
Guy thinks this is an indicator of "the beginning of a further seismic shift in his opinions, this time in the diretion of religious reformers"
Was aiming to reach and accord with the Schmalkaldic League
=> formed to shield the Lutheran territories from the Pope
He said to Francis I that if there was a General Council of the Church done in the right why (secular rulers not pope) in a neutral place then he would feel morally obliged to attend
=> maybe even he could be the "arbiter of christendom" says Guy
started redefining the doctrines of the Church of England in line with the League => to convince them he was protestant enough
But "the Germans saw it differerntly"
To ally with league, must accept doctrine of justification by faith alone (Confession of Hapsburg, their manifesto)
=> wouldnt => diplomacy went nowhere
"For the next four years, Henry governed through Cromwell" -Guy
"He had, as it appeared, his own agenda, promoting covertly a more radical religious policy than Henry was prepared to tolerate"
"the new chief minster strove tor eform and purge the Church on biblical lines, workign with Carnmer and persuading a coterie of evangelical scholars and printers to assist him in printing tracts and translations with a decidedly reformist spin"
Admittedly, says Guy, he did not deny the real presence or teahh Justification by faith alone
Attacked intercessions to saints and the use of images
=> seriously undermined belief in purgatory
Unleashed the first icoclasts
=> especially in London started destroying images of the pope/saints in statutes and stained glass windows
BUT Wooding says that the ones which weren’t worshipped were left for the illiterate => was attacking bc he presented himself as an old testament king (same with saints later)
Cromwell also took steps to improve the discipline + standards of Clergy
"unlike Anne, (she) quickly leanred never to speak out of turn"
Adopted the motto "Bound to obey and serve"
royal injunctions, Cromwell brought them in
used the discussion paper Foxe brought back from Germany as a template
"Cromwell's articles set forth his own radical agenda"
But a year later Henry replaced the changes with a confessional statement known as The Institution of a Christian Man
Said to Cromwell and Cranmer that he wanted this type of religion to be "in all nations throughout the world"
Wanted doctrines to be based purely on the "Word of God" => no "glosses or papistical laws" or anything "not contained in scripture"
=> like Luther
"Cromwell's announcement relfected a dramatic change to Henry's underlying belief system as compared to teh biews he had held when he had written his book against Luther in 1521"
"whereas before, Henry had always maintained that he was a 'true catholic' and scourge of the reformers, now for the first time he allowed himself to be quoted in print using the vocabulary of spiritual conversion"
They simply "lost" four of the Catholic sacraments
=> mentioned the same 3 Luther said was valid bc they had been instituted by Christ as the gospels showed
Often seen as "protestant"
not just trying to pander to Lutherans
"They use language which is clearly reformist, both in terms of doctrines of salvation and the sacraments, and in terms of reforming superstitious practices concerning images, but they do not promote Lutheran doctrine"- Lucy Wooding
"in protest at the annihilation of the abbeys" (small ones had just been repressed
then the whole of Yorkshire and the north "erupted in mass insurrections"-Guy
"the largest of these rebellions, called the Pilgrimage of Grace, was the bigges tthreat faced by either Henry or his father, so dangerous because nobles, gentry, clergy and some 40k commoners joined forces in a bid to force the king to dismiss Cromwell and Canrmer, and then summon a parliament at which he would reverse all his policies"
Jane threw herself at his feet, begging to restore abbeys
he said stop interfering "remeber that the last queen died in consequence of meddling too much"
Northumberland negotiated => offered a pardon
Henry invited their Captain Robert Aske to Greenwich for Christmas
Led to a split in the rebels => suspicion of Aske
Further revolts in the New Year =. enabled Henr to "divide and rule"
Claimed that this fresh treason broke the truce
Ordered the reprisals to be "without pity or respect"-Henry
There is a "monastic complicity" in the pilgrimage => Bernard believes this is a big factor in Henry choosing to suppress all of them, Pettegree thinks probs right
Pettegree + Bernard also think it is why eventualyl chose to support English Bible => rebellion was bc of ignorance
With instructions to "raise funds to bankroll the rebels"
"With the King so distracted, Cromwell gently coaxed him into the important step of licensing the so-called 'Matthew Bible'"
=> version of Tyndal'e stext made by assistant John Rogers using a psedonym to distance from Tyndale
Cranmer v happy
"but for Cromwell it was not yet enough. Now, his ambition was to get a vernacular Bible into all 8,500 parrish churches in England"
The King intervened personally to ensure that the Bishop’s Book of 1537 reflected his vision of a reformed, purged, but theologically orthodox church (Bernard + Pettegrees' view)
Cranmer and Cromwell published "without the king's official sanction"
it "showed how far they wanted to take these religious reforms" => more protestant
"A healthy boy"
But she died 12 days later
"Cromwell saw his opportunity, pressing ahead with measures that would impress the League while advancing his own agenda"
Henry had now denounced veneration of relics and images "as idolatory pure and simple"
So Cromwell "purged shrines and cults of saints with unconcealed zest, to the delight of the king's German guests"
"Most spectacularly" at the shrine of Thomas Becket at Canterbury (Guy calls the zenith of the anit-papal campaign, also erased the name of the pope from allb books)
Where Henry had once knelt in prayer there with Charles V
Richard Rex says this symbolised the overthrow of clerical superiority over the king (think of what acc happened with Thomas Becket death)
Henry had already ordered the destruction of the larger abbeys
declared them venerate bastions of "popery"
"those monksw ho cooperated were generously pensioned off"
Those whor esisted "were vound in chains, tried for treason and hanged"
e.g. those at Colchester, Reading and Glastonbury
Almost all except those turned into Cathedrals were "dismantled- in some cases using explosives in a concerted effort to wipe theeir memory from the face of the Earth"
"precious metals, art treasures, libraries and building materials were systematically plundered"
"But negotaitions with the league faltered again" -> Henry reuused to make concessions on topics e.g. communion in both the bread and the wine, private Masses and clerical celibacy
And as the Lutherans left, another problem came up
began to receive info claiming that there was a "sacrementarian network" in England => purely symbolic view of Eucharist, even more radical than Lutheran spiritual interpretation
"without delay" exiled Reginald Pole publishes what he had earlier sent in confidence to the king, denying his Supremacy and reforms
"denouncing Henry as spiritually and mentally diseased and as a murderous tyrant worst ehan Nero or Richard III... Pole said, Henry was destined to burn in hell"
Pole then hurried to Toledo to persuade Charles V to invade England
"In respones, Henry put England on full military alert... this was the largest military building programme between the Norman Conquest and the Napoleonic Wars" => big taxes + selling abbey lands
Cromwell tehn proposed that Henry create a marriage alliance with the Schmalkaldic League as a solution
"Cromwell's preferred candidate was Anne, daughter of John III of Cleves"
Cleves not yet a formal member of the Schmalkaldic League, preparing to join and she had previously been contracted to marry the Duke of Lorraine's son
"this was not quite a perfect match"
Duke John and his heir "stood on the middle ground between Rome and Wittenberge in theology" => good for Henry
All the reports were that Anne was super fit
Anne set out for England by which time Cromwell had secured Henry's approval for a new "Great Bible"
"a much improved revision of the earlier translation and a milestone in English printing history"
So that every parish could purchase one
"enabling Cromwell to fulfil his lifelong ambition to put the scripture in the hands of the ordinary people"
Redworth says this was still v expensive
"We know there was great resistance to paying out the fourteen shillings or so for a copy of the Great Bible; but even in the one division of darkest Lancashire for which we have figures it would appear that by 1552 well over half the churches had a copy of this most expensive book."
religious policy based on the kings of the old testament
he had acted 'as the chief and best of the kings of Israel did, and as all good christian kings ought to do'.
Rejection of the pope based on pope's intrustion not sacraments
"Yet this identification was not based, as it was for the Protestant Reformers, on the papacy's alleged substitution of a 'works religion' for the doctrine of justification by faith alone. It was based on the papacy's alleged intrusion into the place of kings and princes, an unholy usurpation of divine right monarchy which inverted the proper order of society and consequently corrupted religious doctrine and practice"-Richard Rex
Henry Parker, Lord Morely defended Henry bc the pope had the desire 'to bring in his subjection all the princes of the world'
"first officially authorised English translation of Scripture"-Wooding
-> appears v protestant
Wooding says it was bc he justified the supremacy on the Bible => needed people to understand waht that was
on the title page he is handing out the Bible to the clergy
ordinary folk at the bottom shout "Vivat Rex!" and "long live the king!" (not God)
=> shows the reformation was mainly about his supremacy says Wooding
"to the Lutherans' deep dismay"
"Henry had stepped back from moves to redefine church doctrine"
"reversed much of the thrust of Cromwell's policy as Vicegerent and affirmed ALL SEVEN SACRAMENTS at least in nam"
Appeared "at first sight" to be "a more traditional Catholic interpretatiuon of the seven sacraments of the Church"
Guys says tho that "Henry's reversion in his later years to a more Catholic reading of the sacrements, however, was more aparrent than real"
"his six articles... continued to reflect the king's heightened emphasis on Scripture as the test by which the Church and its doctrines should be judged"
e.g. Catholics saw the act of consecration of mas as "a miracle performed by the mediation of the clergy"
Six Articles claimed that it was only achieved by "the strength and efficacy of Christ's mighty Word"
"Henry's theology ended up as a somewhat idiosyncratic mix, leaving him looking very much like a beached whale, stranded on the sandbanks between Rome and Wittenberg. His spiritual journey would be hesitant at best, but if instinctively he recoiled from the most central of Luther's doctrines, neither would he remain an orthodox Catholic"
Some historians call it a "catholic reaction"
=> not really, just Henry's view
were "a mark of Henry's alarm that his subjects had taken HIS Royal Supremacy as an excuse for advancinginto what he saw as heresy" -Lucy Wooding
Redworth believes that Henry's own small additions show that he was always getting exactly what HE wanted, not his courtiers
-"overturned the opinion of the majority of his prelates by deciding that confession to a priest was not necessary according to the law of God.
-"arbitrarily added the vow of widowhood to a list of other vows which were to be legally enforceable "
Lands valued at £132k/anum
and jewels, precious metals + othjer valuables worth £75k
With the suppression "Henry and Cromwell eliminated the last centres of organised resistance to the royal supremacy"
King's regular income almost doubled
Clergy had an "immediate decline in morale"
=> number of caniddates for ordination dropped a lot
"there was little real conviction that Henry's reformation had anything to do with spiritual life, or with God"
Disappearance of the abbots in the House of Lords => ecclesiastical vote "withered away" => laity dominant in both houses
Monasteries possessed right to appoint 2/5 of parochial clergy => went to the laity when the lands sold => gentry could choose their parish clergy
"the worst social effects were felt in northern England and Wales, where the abbeys had provided a hgiher proprotion of EMPLOYMENT and POOR RELIEF than they had elsewhere"
Second dissolution act was here
"But from the monment Henry saw his intended bride, he disliked her"
"At Rochester on New Year's Day, he rushed to meet her, laden with gifts, but did not give them to her"
Did not even consumate with her
Mainly bc of the Anne of Cleves thing, but also bc accusations of sacramentarian
"the man whom Henry had made his vigerent spiritual was roundly denounced as a heretic for allegedly protecting a secret cell of sacramentarians at Calais" (shown by Duke of Norfolk, pissed about Cromwell closing Thetford prior)
Guy says the charge was "inherently plausible"
"in the king's eyes, Cromwell's dealings over the Cleves marriage had been treasonable"
When his house searched "incriminating papers were found. Some related to a clandestine contact with the Swiss refomers"
Executed after having provided evidence Henry wanted to have his marriage annuled on thegrounds of non-consummation
"the king's eye had already lighted on Katherine Howard"
Bernard claims ". In a similar vein Thomas Cromwell was not destroyed as a result of factional religious policies, because Cromwell was not an evangelical. Rather he was sacrificed to impress the Emperor and the King of France, with whom Henry hoped for rapprochement"
Suggsted by Duke of Norfolk => has some more influence over Henry possibly
on the same day
3 protestants for justiifcation by faith alone affirming
3 catholics for not rejecting pope
a French ambassador remarked that Henry was Catholic in all that did not bring him profit
The samed day that Cromwell was executed
".was not an attempt to sabotage the authorised English translation of the Bible by turning back some of its most theologically important passages into Latin"
"was instead an abortive attempt by the more old-fashioned bishops to have a better (meaning more conservative), translation in English provided for the people. The Great Bible then in use was a hand-me-down version based on a Protestant original. Though drafted into official service it had never fitted in with the statements of faith that Henry's bishops sanctioned."
=> shows this was not a reactionist decade, a decade of further reform
Also, this was he "decade of the litany" => first time vernacular implemetned into routine worship of church
"she was denounced to Cranmer for her reckless indiscretions with an old flame"-Guy
"her true religious sympathies, which were towards the evangelical reformers, she deftly disguised
Replaced The Institution of a Christian Man
More comprehensive "if less radical"
George Bernard claims this was Henry looking for "an elusive middle way by reaffirming both reforms accomplished and Catholic theology"
Bernard claims this was not a "conservative reaction" in the last decade of his reign, as has often been supposed"
When Henry acc bothered to read the Cs' books, ordered the new one
"repeatedly their hopes were dashed" -Wooding (Cromwell + Cranmer trying to take it further
"to the very end Henry was determined to stay in control of the Reformation HE had unleashed"
Ordained that "extracts from each Testament should be read during all services on Sundays or holy days."-Redworth => he claims this is another example of emphasis on Bible for the Henrician ref
Reverses to mostly Catholic doctrines
=> but questions purgatory
31 y o widow
She is an evangelical like Anne
"shows that, as far as the king was concerned, the spiritual coherence implicit in his particular religious settlement did not fade towards the end of his life"
-> not court faction dictating him
"the king attacked both the 'murnpsimus' of those too attached to the unreformed practices of Rome and the 'sumpsimus' of those keen to overthrow what had been sanctioned by earlier Christians. "
"Shrines destroyed, the cult of saints abolished, pilgrimages discontinued, purgatory denied; what Lutheran prince could have done more in twenty years to prepare for the root-and-branch Reformation carried out in the name of his son, Edward VI? And of course Henry sanctioned the greatest plunder of church resources ever contemplated in England: the dissolution of the monasteries." -Pettegree
Guy beached whale analogy
"there is a prima facie case against the theological coherence of a church which on the one hand rejected the papacy, monasticism and the cult of relics and images , and yet on the other upheld free will, the real presence and the sacrifice of the mass. The contradictions can be refined more closely still. Henry's church denied purgatory but retained prayers for the dead, accepted images but rejected the veneration of images"-Richard Rex
Macculloch described Henry's theology as nothing more than a 'ragbag of emotional preferences'.
"Simple terms like 'Catholic' or 'Protestant' (or even 'evangelical', to use the earlier term) will not serve to describe Henry's church... Nor was money the decisive issue, for if money alone was at stake he would undoubtedly have taken the attack to the Mass"-Richar dRex
V much a "balancing act" => with the famous "six preachers" organised at Canterbury had 'three of the old learning and three of the new' + when a new theleological book, solicited review from all schools + fromed his own opinion