Johann Pestalozzi


Johann Pestalozzi was a pioneer in regards creating educational programs specifically designed for children. He wrote about the development of his son who was 3.5 years old

The Child Study Movement


C. Stanley Hall, Charles Darwin, and Lawrence Frank spearheaded this movement. The child Study movement focused on the attributes and needs of children. The belief was that, by studying the development of an infant, it would give a better picture of the development of the human species as a whole. This movement taught us that observation was very important when assessing the development of a child.

Group Studying


During this time Academic centers for Children were established. These centers had two objectives. Providing children with educational experiences, and also allowed researchers to observe and study children as a group. This was much more efficient than studying a child individually.

Concerns about development


During this tie frame there began to be concerns about the low academic performance of low income children. In response to this concern Head Start was founded to provide educational services to low income children. Following Head Start were other programs such as Title 1, the Emergency School Aid Act, and bilingual programs

PL 94-142


PL 94-142, also known as the "Education of All Handicapped Children Act" was passed in 1975. This law was incredible significant, and set the stage for later laws.

This Law established that Public schools must provide services to 6-21 year olds with special needs.

Reform to education


The 1980s were marked by a movement for reform of education, as well as an emphasis on assessment. The movement included an emphasis on standardized testing in order to create accountability for what students were learning. The goal of these assessments were to ensure that children across all grades hit educational goals. Another result of this movement was to establish minimum standards of education.

PL 99-457


"Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments" This law was the catalyst for the foundation of the Preschool Grant Program, and the Early intervention State Grant Program.

This law mandated that in order to receive federal funding, a state must prove that they are providing services to children with disabilities ages 3-21 year-olds (rather than 6-21 as mandated under PL 94-142)



This Act is better know as "The Americans with Disabilities Act" (ADA)
This act had a huge impact of the educational services children with disabilities received. Under this Act, early childhood programs must not discriminate against children with disabilities. That meant that all early childhood education programs must be ready to serve and accommodate Children with special needs.



PL 94-142 and PL 99-457 were combined and renames "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

This law required that Special Education students take state tests, and that the states report those results. It was difficult to get the states to comply, as there were no consequences for non-compliance

No Child Left Behind Act


The NCLB impacted the assessment and testing conducted by the states. It required that States monitor the yearly progress of its student. The states were also required to develop and administer tests to track learning.

Strengthening of Early Childhood Programs


Multiple programs aimed at improving Early Childhood Programs were established by George W Bush. These programs created child-outcome standards and guidelines in order to judge the effectiveness of Early Childhood programs

IDEA Improvement Act


In 2004 Improvements to the IDEA program were proposed. Part A mandated that ALL children 3-21 years old must receive free, appropriate public education.

IDEA Improvement Part B


Part B of the IDEA improvement Act mandated that the educational services provided to children with disabilities must be provided in the least restrictive environment. This meant that public school districts have the responsibility to provide early education programs for special needs children as early as age 3.

IDEA Improvement Act Part C


Part C of the IDEA improvement Act was also known as the Early Intervention Program. This program mandated early intervention services for children 0-2 years old, who are eligible for such services due to their developmental delays