AP Lit Sem 2

Enlightenment, Romanticism, Modernism

Periods

Enlightenment

Approx. 1650 - 1800

-"Age of Reason"
-Scientific method
-Empiricism
-Satire resurfaced for first time since Roman Empire
-dismissing long-held beliefs from Greek scientists
-"crush it," reexamination of society, people saying we need to change things
-John Locke, who inspired Jefferson
-government based on people's needs instead of religious right
-ultimate result American and French Revolutions
-Horatian and Juvenelian satire
-fruits of Renaissance, a world that can be changed

Rococo

1700 - 1750

-A shift of power from the royal court to the aristocrats is paralleled in the shift in taste from the Baroque to the ---.
-The French Royal Academy dictated artistic taste in 18th century Paris.
-Architecture seeks to unite the arts in a coherent artistic experience.
-A quintessential --- painting is the "fete galante", which portrays the aristocracy in their leisurely pursuits.
-Developed a strong school of satirical painting.

Romantic Era

1800 - 1850

-rejection of rationalization of nature
-celebration irrational psyche and mysteries of existence
-criticizing urbanization
-idealized simplicity
-originality crucial
-rebellion, powerful emotions, taking risks and having adventures
-rejection of what was good or respectable
-rejection of Enlightenment, which was rigid and tried to control how people lived their lives
-wanted art to be accessible
-romantic poets took note of folk stories- more simple language
-inspired by Shakespeare, who they considered a rebel and champion of individual
-inspired by Gothic, horror, supernatural and Medieval, exploration dark side being human
-poetry explores normal people at foot scary forces
-didn't like idea that life can always be controlled and orderly
-romantic love > marriage contracts, before- love a mental illness
-individualism > fixed society roles
-live free, die young
-nature and countryside > industrial cities
-attacked idea that virtue = knowledge

Realism

1850 - 1900

-Reaction to/rejection of romanticism, particularly implausible, exotic and supernatural
-based on belief in objective reality
-representation of quotidian, everyday life
-often depicting middle and lower classes
-willingness to depict unpleasant, even sordid aspects of life
-coincides with introduction of photography
-normal, real people

Naturalism

1880 - 1940

-subgenre realistic
-based on belief that we are subject to great uncontrollable forces (heredity, environment, social conditions)
-generally dark tone and topics
-first embrace of communism
-colonialism

Modernism

1900 - 1930

-Ambiguity/uncertainty/bewilderment
-fragmentation/dislocation/disjointedness
-disillusionment
-alienation/isolation
-apparent meaninglessness of life
-experimentation, esp. use of:
uncertain, incomplete or nonexistent expositions and resolutions
use of 1st person or 3rd person limited
stream of conciousness

Works

William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Leviathan

1651

Hobbes,

“Two Treatises on Government.”

1690

Locke,

"Serious Proposal to Women"

1697

Astell,
This stated that women needed to become better educated.

“Persian Letters.”

1721

Montesquieu,
Reason used to liberate the mind.

Swift, "A Modest Proposal"

1729

-Juvenilian satire “For preventing the children of poor people in Ireland,​
from being a burden on their parents or country,​
and for making them beneficial to the publick.”
-problem in Ireland- a lot of poverty, a bunch of English owners of Irish land not paying taxes and sucking blood out of Irish tenants for land that should have been theirs

“Philosophic Letters to the English.”

1733

Voltaire,
Criticized problems facing France at the time.

Treaties on Human Nature

1739 - 1740

Hume,

Spirit of the Laws.

1748

Montesquieu
The condition of the country determined the political and social structure.

Encyclopédie

1751 - 1765

Diderot
Considered the most important work of his lifetime

The Age of Louis XIV

1751

Voltaire,

William Blake

1757 - 1827

-The Lamb
-The Tyger

Voltaire, Candide

1758

The Social Contract, Emile

1762

Rousseau,
Attempt to unite the liberty of the individual with the authority of the government. Emile was important for education.

Treaties on Toleration

1763

Voltaire,

On Crimes and Punishments

1764

Beccaria,

Systems of Nature

1770

Holbach,
Stated that the universe is made up of matter and motion

William Wordsworth

1770 - 1850

-“Composed upon Westminster Bridge,
September 3, 1802”
-“The World Is Too Much With Us”
-"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud"
-"My Heart Leaps Up"

Samuel T. Coleridge

1772 - 1834

-Kubla Khan

Wealth of Nations

1776

Smith,

Critique of Pure Reason

1784

Kant,
Analysis of the human mind and how it relates to nature

treatise on women's rights

1787

Condorcet,
Philosopher, said women have the same natural rights as men

Rights of Man

March 13, 1791

Paine,

Declaration of the Rights of Women

September, 1791

Olympe de Gouges,

Progress of Human Mind

1794

Condorcet,

Age of Reason

1794

Paine,

John Keats

1795 - 1821

-Ode on Melancholy
-Ode on a Grecian Urn

Ralph Waldo Emerson

May 25, 1803 - Apr 27, 1882

Henry David Thoreau

July 12, 1817 - May 6, 1862

Frankenstein

1818

-Mary Shelley

Emily Dickinson

1830 - 1886

Bronte, Wuthering Heights

December 1847

Leaves of Grass

1855

Whitman

Hedda Gabler

1890

Heart of Darkness

1899

Events

American Revolution

1765 - 1783

Industrial Revolution

1770 - 1850

French Revolution

1789 - 1799