Enlightenment, Romanticism, Modernism
-"Age of Reason"
-Satire resurfaced for first time since Roman Empire
-dismissing long-held beliefs from Greek scientists
-"crush it," reexamination of society, people saying we need to change things
-John Locke, who inspired Jefferson
-government based on people's needs instead of religious right
-ultimate result American and French Revolutions
-Horatian and Juvenelian satire
-fruits of Renaissance, a world that can be changed
-A shift of power from the royal court to the aristocrats is paralleled in the shift in taste from the Baroque to the ---.
-The French Royal Academy dictated artistic taste in 18th century Paris.
-Architecture seeks to unite the arts in a coherent artistic experience.
-A quintessential --- painting is the "fete galante", which portrays the aristocracy in their leisurely pursuits.
-Developed a strong school of satirical painting.
-rejection of rationalization of nature
-celebration irrational psyche and mysteries of existence
-rebellion, powerful emotions, taking risks and having adventures
-rejection of what was good or respectable
-rejection of Enlightenment, which was rigid and tried to control how people lived their lives
-wanted art to be accessible
-romantic poets took note of folk stories- more simple language
-inspired by Shakespeare, who they considered a rebel and champion of individual
-inspired by Gothic, horror, supernatural and Medieval, exploration dark side being human
-poetry explores normal people at foot scary forces
-didn't like idea that life can always be controlled and orderly
-romantic love > marriage contracts, before- love a mental illness
-individualism > fixed society roles
-live free, die young
-nature and countryside > industrial cities
-attacked idea that virtue = knowledge
-Reaction to/rejection of romanticism, particularly implausible, exotic and supernatural
-based on belief in objective reality
-representation of quotidian, everyday life
-often depicting middle and lower classes
-willingness to depict unpleasant, even sordid aspects of life
-coincides with introduction of photography
-normal, real people
-based on belief that we are subject to great uncontrollable forces (heredity, environment, social conditions)
-generally dark tone and topics
-first embrace of communism
-apparent meaninglessness of life
-experimentation, esp. use of:
uncertain, incomplete or nonexistent expositions and resolutions
use of 1st person or 3rd person limited
stream of conciousness
This stated that women needed to become better educated.
Reason used to liberate the mind.
-Juvenilian satire “For preventing the children of poor people in Ireland,
from being a burden on their parents or country,
and for making them beneficial to the publick.”
-problem in Ireland- a lot of poverty, a bunch of English owners of Irish land not paying taxes and sucking blood out of Irish tenants for land that should have been theirs
Criticized problems facing France at the time.
The condition of the country determined the political and social structure.
Considered the most important work of his lifetime
Attempt to unite the liberty of the individual with the authority of the government. Emile was important for education.
Stated that the universe is made up of matter and motion
-“Composed upon Westminster Bridge,
September 3, 1802”
-“The World Is Too Much With Us”
-"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud"
-"My Heart Leaps Up"
Analysis of the human mind and how it relates to nature
Philosopher, said women have the same natural rights as men
Olympe de Gouges,
-Ode on Melancholy
-Ode on a Grecian Urn