20 objects

Events

Ancient Greece

776 BCE - 146 BCE

Aristotle

384 BC - 322 BC

Alexandria

331 BC

Centre for learning, fibres that link brain and eyes

Galen

129 AD - 200 AD

Greek physician, disections

Medieval Times

400 - 1500

Fall of Rome

Approx. 410

manuscripts lost

Early Middle Ages

500 - 1000

Renaissance

1400 - 1600

The cultural rebirth, based on rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome

Versalius in Padua

1537

The Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1775

Influenced the enlightenment. Transformation in scientific ideas across maths, physics, astronomy.

Romantics/Vitalism

1601 - 1700

The theory that the origin and phenomena of life are dependent on a force or principle distinct from purely chemical or physical forces. Vital forces or sparks that make the soul.

Swammerdam

1637 - 1680

Steno

1638 - 1686

The Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

Age of reason and marked the emphasis on scientific methods and reductionism.

Restoration

1660

Royal Society set up by Charles II

Robert Hooke

1665

Royal Society, observes cork/dead tree cells

Globules

1670

Leeuwenhoek, considered to be the first microbiologist

Leeuwenhoek

1673

sperm theory

Egg theory accepted

1675

Linnaeus

1707 - 1778

18th century, enlightenment's most famous figures

Lamarck

1744 - 1829

Georges Cuvier

1769 - 1832

French naturalist and zoologist

Electricity

1780

Shift from classification to analysis

1780 - 1830

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

hospitals and museums become areas for research

Karl Ernst von Baer

1792 - 1826

comparing and analysing embryos

The term Biology comes in

1800

Industrial Revolution

1800

quality of population

1801 - 1900

Johannes Muller

1801 - 1850

famous physiologist, anatomy teacher. Emphasis on reductionism

Working in museums

1810 - 1870

Early 1800s

Microscopes

1810

Carl Ludwig

1816 - 1895

Invented kymograph, strongly opposed to naturphilosophie, wanted organic physiscs

Galton

1822 - 1911

Case study- own family

RSPCA

1824

in the UK

Humboldt

1830

Terrestrial physics

Lyell

1830

how old the Earth is

HMS Beagle

1831 - 1836

Gage

1832 - 1860

Developmentalism

1834 - 1919

Haeckel

Schleiden proposed that all plants are composed of cells.

1838

Cell Theory

1839

Developed over the 19th and 20th century

Schwann concludes all animals are made of cells.

1839

Ferrier

1843 - 1928

Inspired by electrical stimulations, first functional map of the human brain based on physiological data

Ivan Pavlov

1849 - 1936

Asscoiated with Carl Ludwig

Movement from museums to labs

1850 - Present day

Late/mid 1800s

Experiemental physiology emerged

1850

Mid-19th century

Pearson

1857 - 1936

population approach

On the Origin of Species

1859

Louis Pasteur

1860

Gregor Mendel

1865

pea experiments

Ross Harrison

1870 - 1959

Tissue culture

Shift from miasmic theories to germ theory

Approx. 1870

Biological field station

1873

Naples

Watson

1878 - 1958

Psychology

1879

Wilhelm Wundt, associated with Muller

Evolution, embryology, developmentalism, morphology

1880 - 1900

Late 19th century

Weldon

1881

Visits Naples (zoological station), thinks statistics will make evolution more rigorous

Vaccine for Rabies

1885

Modernism

1890 - 1915

Genetics

1900

More scientific disciplines

1900

Ecology emerges as a discipline

1900

Roberk Kock

1902

Proposes carrier state

Wistar Rat

1909

TH Morgan

1911

Maps chromosomes, proves genes are material entities

Alexis Carrell

1912

The Old Strain

Rockefeller Institute

1913

unease over science and technology

1920 - 1930

the war

Standardisation of mice

1920 - 1960

Scopes Trial

1925

Strangeways

1926

Rabbit and sausages

Honor Fell

1930

Modern Synthesis

1930 - 1940

Ernst Mayr, brings mendelian genetics, natural selection,gradual evolution together

Science of Man agenda

1930

Eugenics taken from biology

1930 - 1940

electrophoresis

1937

Molecular biology

1938

Avery

1940

smooth and rough bacteria

biologcal experiments move from Europe to America

1940

Weiner, von Neuman, Turing

1942 - 1948

compare computer and brain

16 custom built ultracentrifuges

1947

cybernetics

1948

Environmentalists

1950

Double Helix

1953

Nirenberg and Matthaei

1961

genetic code, UUU

Change of laws

1963 - 1987

intelligent design

Recombinant DNA

1975

Sanger Sequencing

1977

HGP

1990 - 2001