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Events

Renaissance

1300 - 1600

Black Death

1348 - 1800

Sack of Constantinople

1453

becomes Istanbul - Ottoman take from the Byzantines
fall of Byzantine Empire
fleeing Byzantines bring Greek texts to Italy

Peace of Lodi

1454

Italian city-state recognize each other's sovereignty
stop fighting amongst themselves

Northern Renaissance

1480 - 1550

Spanish Inquisition of Jews and Conquer of Granada

1492

Charles VIII of France invades Italy

1494

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Sack of Rome - Charles V of HRE

1527

Wars

100 Year's War

1337 - 1453

English vs. French/French Civil War
starts with Edward III vs. Philip VI

Battle of Crecy

1346

English beat French with longbowmen

Battle of Poitiers

1356

French king captured and held for ransom

English advance to walls of Paris

1419

Joan of Arc convinces Charles VII

1428

to be crowned and expel the English from France

Battle of Orleans - Turning Point

1429

French win

100 Year's War ends

1453

France wins

War of Roses

1455 - 1485

War of Schmakaldic League

1546 - 1547

Rulers

Florence - Medicis

1434 - 1494

New Monarchs

1450 - 1520

England - Edward IV

1461 - 1483

establishes domestic tranquility
did not want to depend on Parliament

France - Louis XI 'Spider King'

1461 - 1483

cruel
promotes new industries
new monarch

Spain - Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1516

new monarch

England - Henry VII

1485 - 1509

first tudor
new monarch

England - Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

anglican church

England - Edward VI

1547 - 1553

"Reformer"

England - Mary I

1553 - 1559

"Reactionary"

England - Elizabeth I

1559 - 1603

"Politique"

Religion

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

1377 - Pope Gregory XI brings Pope back to Rome

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Italian Pope Urban VI voted into office by cardinals at Rome - abrasive personality
French Antipope Clement VIII voted in by secret cardinals at Avignon

Council at Pisa

1409

meeting of Rome and Avignon councils
deposes both Popes - chooses a third
neither Pope will resign - 3 Popes

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

led by HRE ruler Sigismund
John Has ideas condemned - burned at stake
deposes all Popes - selects new one Martin V
Martin dissolves all the councils - no reform

Joan of Arc burned at stake

1431

Erasmus - Greek New Testament

1516

Concordat of Bologna

1516

France can appoint bishops

Martin Luther - 95 Theses

1517

Leipzig Debates

1519

Martin Luther - Appeal to Christian Nobility of German Nation

1520

Martin Luther - On Christian Liberty

1520

Diet of Worms

1521

Edict of Worms

1521

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Martin Luther - An Admonition to Peace

1525

Diet of Augsburg

1530

Act of Supremacy

1534

Peace of Augsburg

1555

39 Articles of Faith

1562

Exploration and Colonization

African Slave Trade begins

1444

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Vasco de Gama lands in India

1498

People/Literary Works/Art

Francisco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

identifies difference between Middle Ages and Renaissance
father of humanism - values Greek and Latin texts, wants to purify the Latin - textual criticism

John Wyclif

1320 - 1384

discredits temporal papal claims
believed everyone should read the Bible - in response to him, Bible circulated in English
followers called Lollards

Dante - Divine Comedy

1320

Marsiglio of Padua - Defensor Pacis

1324

says church is subordinate to state - advocates conciliar model

Leonardo Bruni

1370 - 1444

historian, comes up with term 'humanism'
integrates Greek purification along with Latin b/c studied under Greek scholar

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

movable print for printing press invented

1455

Gutenberg Bible

1456

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

Raphael

1483 - 1520

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Pico della Mirandola - Oration on the Dignity of Man

1486

Michelangelo - David

1501

Michelangelo - Sistine Chapel

1506

Machiavelli - The Prince

1513

Thomas More - Utopia

1516

Mannerism

1527 - 1600