No salvation outside the Roman church
Pope brought to Avignon
Pope resides in Avignon; Rome left in poverty
Colder climate leads to poor harvest. Survivors are malnourished, making them more susceptible to viruses. Unemployment and crime rates rise.
Cause- conflict between England and France over control of the French crown and the province Aquitaine. Conseuences- Loss of life, France is ravaged, financial loses, breakdown in social order-knights leave to fight, stimulates development of English Parliament-ask parliament for money, growth sense of national identity in England and France, Leads to War of Roses,
Wipes out 1/3 of population. Poland gets almost no plague because of almost no towns. 30 million out of 75 milion die. People start to isolate people in their homes. Marriage, trade disruptions, peasant rebellions, a lot of Vagabondage. Wages ris, peasants begin to gain more land, and debasing of currency. Jews persecuted for plague. Morbid obsession with death
Starts in Italy, and gradually spreads to the rest of Europe. Individualism and Secularism are intellectual developments. Transportation and printing press are technological developments.
Conflict between monarchs and church over taxation of the clergy(Edward I, Philip the Fair)- The church prohibited taxation of the clergy. Avignon Papacy grows wealthier. "Mass neurosis"- Black masses show disaffection of the church. Weakens the church, generates criticism, and sets the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
He is eventually declared unright and Clement VII is elected and there is one pope in Avignon and one in Rome.
Third Pope elected
Summoned to end the schism and reform the church. Elected Pope Martin V; lives in Rome. John Huss gets burned at the stake. Eliminate Heresy, councils want to retain authority, share control of church with pope--unsuccessful.
England/Civil War 30 years- Reds/Lancaster win against Whites/York.
1517-1545; Catholic Reformation 1545-1600
Before the reformation, Catholicism was strong; better educated clergy than anywhere else in Europe. Many resented the power of the papacy, taxes went to Rome. Represents the close link between politics and religion.
Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses because he did not like the church for the corruption through the clergy. Growth of the monasteries; secularism; dislike of papal authority, the monarchs want the control. SALE OF INDULGENCES, in order to rebuild the Basilica of St. Peter.
Papal Bull to ex-communicate Luther- he burns the Papal Bull.
Charles asks him to recant his works but Luther doesn't agree and his writings become banned.
Detect an punish heretics. The court system used torture.
Met to reform the Catholic Church. They reaffirmed doctrines/practices, but also reformed abuses. The Society of Jesus was formed by Ignatius Loyola, 1540
Princes use Lutheranism against the Emperor to protect Luther. Pope refuses to call a council for fear of losing power(because of the Council of Trent and Constance).
States can decide their own religion, not the Emperor. Lutheran or Catholic, Holy Roman Empire becomes weakened.
The Age of Exploration: 1450-1650
Improved compass, astrolabe, better ships, additional royal revenues, demand for sea routes for Eastern Goods, missionaries saw new lands as full of potential converts, individual wealth.
Influx of gold and silver, Spain and Portugal compete with Venetian merchants, consumer goods/staple commodities more available in Europe, first establishment of commercial empires, THE BLACK LEGEND, knowledge of true world size.
1492: Christopher Columbus sailed ocean blue.
1494: Treaty of Tordesillas- Divide the new world.
1498: Vasco De Gamma arrives in India
1520: Magellan circumnavigates the globe.
Nobility were attracted to Calvinism, but that was seen as a threat.
Catherine de Medici rules as regent and makes all decisions
Regulates trades/wages. Goods become cheaper, gives competition to the guilds.
They fear the Spanish Inquisition, mass revolts breakout as a result
establishes the Council of Troubles
Thousands of Huguenots killed in Paris
Seven Northern provinces of the Netherlands declare their independence from Augsburg Spain.
Executed for being a Catholic threat
Humiliating Spanish defeat, while English Navy is superior. This begins Spain's slow decline of their economy and politics.
King Henry III(Valois) and Henry of Guise are assassinated. Henry of Navarre(Bourbon Huguenot) becomes king. STARTING THE SOON LOUIS LINE!!
Henry IV converts to Catholicism.
Protestantism allowed in private, and i outlying areas where it was the majority. Protestants and Catholics had equal rights. Protestants had fortified towns and armies
Forces the poor to work
Divide the Netherlands into Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
Causes: Protestant unions vs. Catholics in the HRE, Spanish are threatening territory of HRE and France, Truce between Spanish and Dutch will expire soon, Austrian Habsburgs want to create a powerful empire, The Defenestration of Prague- First reason for the war.
Bohemia deposes Emperor Matthias choose elector Palatine(Frederick V). Bohemia defeated, Catholic Victorym Spanish entrenched in Rhineland.
Danish King leads Protestants, with Dutch and English aid, defeated by Wallenstien. Catholic Victory- reconvert Protestants. Edict of Restitution
Modifies Edict of Nantes, eliminates the fortified cities and Protestant armies. Created by Cardinal Richelieu
Sweden and France alarmed by Catholic and Habsburg victories. Gustavus Adolphus eventually loses Protestant support
France and Sweden continue to attack Germany, while Spain invades France, Germans drive out foreign invaders.
Divides and weakens the HRE. Calvinism added to the Peace of Augsburg. Acceptance of religious disunity. FRANCE EMERGES AS MOST POWERFUL NATION
Rebellion by Nobility- helps Louis XIV because it makes people want more stability.
Make each town responsible for its poor
Against France; France ends up withdrawing from Spanish Netherlands
All office holders must be Anglican
France and the Dutch Republic made peace. Sweden was not part of the treaty, but a paragraph in the treaty forced the Dutch Republic to take a neutral approach toward Sweden.
Leopold I held back Turks. Last attempt for Ottoman Empire to take over.
No Catholic could ever be king of England
Brings Scotland under British crown