AP European History Timeline

Unit II: The Renaissance


Pope Bonifave VIII issues the Unam Sactum


No salvation outside the Roman church

Pope Boniface VIII arrested by Philip the Fair


Pope brought to Avignon

Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1378

Pope resides in Avignon; Rome left in poverty

Northern Europe in Famine and Plague

1315 - 1322

Colder climate leads to poor harvest. Survivors are malnourished, making them more susceptible to viruses. Unemployment and crime rates rise.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

Cause- conflict between England and France over control of the French crown and the province Aquitaine. Conseuences- Loss of life, France is ravaged, financial loses, breakdown in social order-knights leave to fight, stimulates development of English Parliament-ask parliament for money, growth sense of national identity in England and France, Leads to War of Roses,

Black Death

1348 - 1350

Wipes out 1/3 of population. Poland gets almost no plague because of almost no towns. 30 million out of 75 milion die. People start to isolate people in their homes. Marriage, trade disruptions, peasant rebellions, a lot of Vagabondage. Wages ris, peasants begin to gain more land, and debasing of currency. Jews persecuted for plague. Morbid obsession with death

Renaissance Humanism and Art

1350 - 1500

Starts in Italy, and gradually spreads to the rest of Europe. Individualism and Secularism are intellectual developments. Transportation and printing press are technological developments.

Schism of Roman Catholic Church

1378 - 1417

Conflict between monarchs and church over taxation of the clergy(Edward I, Philip the Fair)- The church prohibited taxation of the clergy. Avignon Papacy grows wealthier. "Mass neurosis"- Black masses show disaffection of the church. Weakens the church, generates criticism, and sets the stage for the Protestant Reformation.

Cardinals elect Urban VI


He is eventually declared unright and Clement VII is elected and there is one pope in Avignon and one in Rome.

Council of Pisa


Third Pope elected

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Summoned to end the schism and reform the church. Elected Pope Martin V; lives in Rome. John Huss gets burned at the stake. Eliminate Heresy, councils want to retain authority, share control of church with pope--unsuccessful.

War of Roses

1455 - 1485

England/Civil War 30 years- Reds/Lancaster win against Whites/York.

Niccolo Machiavelli writes The Prince


Unit III; The Protestant Reformation

1517-1545; Catholic Reformation 1545-1600

Johann Gutenberg begins printing books with movable type


The English Reformation

1509 - 1603

Before the reformation, Catholicism was strong; better educated clergy than anywhere else in Europe. Many resented the power of the papacy, taxes went to Rome. Represents the close link between politics and religion.

Beginning of Protestant Reformation


Martin Luther posts 95 Theses

October 30, 1517

Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses because he did not like the church for the corruption through the clergy. Growth of the monasteries; secularism; dislike of papal authority, the monarchs want the control. SALE OF INDULGENCES, in order to rebuild the Basilica of St. Peter.

Pope Leo X issuses a Papal Bull


Papal Bull to ex-communicate Luther- he burns the Papal Bull.

Charles V summons Luther ti the Diet of Worms


Charles asks him to recant his works but Luther doesn't agree and his writings become banned.

The Inquisition


Detect an punish heretics. The court system used torture.

Roman Catholic Council meets at Trent

1545 - 1563

Met to reform the Catholic Church. They reaffirmed doctrines/practices, but also reformed abuses. The Society of Jesus was formed by Ignatius Loyola, 1540

War in Holy Roman Empire

1546 - 1555

Princes use Lutheranism against the Emperor to protect Luther. Pope refuses to call a council for fear of losing power(because of the Council of Trent and Constance).

Peace of Augsburg


States can decide their own religion, not the Emperor. Lutheran or Catholic, Holy Roman Empire becomes weakened.

Unit IV: Economic Renewal and the Wars of Religion

The Age of Exploration: 1450-1650

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1650

Improved compass, astrolabe, better ships, additional royal revenues, demand for sea routes for Eastern Goods, missionaries saw new lands as full of potential converts, individual wealth.
Influx of gold and silver, Spain and Portugal compete with Venetian merchants, consumer goods/staple commodities more available in Europe, first establishment of commercial empires, THE BLACK LEGEND, knowledge of true world size.

Portugal and Spain Exploration Lead

1492 - 1520

1492: Christopher Columbus sailed ocean blue.
1494: Treaty of Tordesillas- Divide the new world.
1498: Vasco De Gamma arrives in India
1520: Magellan circumnavigates the globe.

Persecution of Huguenots

1550 - 1559

Nobility were attracted to Calvinism, but that was seen as a threat.

Incompetent Kings(Boy Kings)

1559 - 1589

Catherine de Medici rules as regent and makes all decisions

Statue of Artificers


Regulates trades/wages. Goods become cheaper, gives competition to the guilds.

Dutch Nobles forn an Anti-Spanish League


They fear the Spanish Inquisition, mass revolts breakout as a result

Duke of Alva sent to Netherlands


establishes the Council of Troubles

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Thousands of Huguenots killed in Paris

The Union of Utrecht


Seven Northern provinces of the Netherlands declare their independence from Augsburg Spain.

Execution of Mary Stuart


Executed for being a Catholic threat



Humiliating Spanish defeat, while English Navy is superior. This begins Spain's slow decline of their economy and politics.

War of Three Henrys


King Henry III(Valois) and Henry of Guise are assassinated. Henry of Navarre(Bourbon Huguenot) becomes king. STARTING THE SOON LOUIS LINE!!

"Paris is well worth a mass"


Henry IV converts to Catholicism.

Edict of Nantes


Protestantism allowed in private, and i outlying areas where it was the majority. Protestants and Catholics had equal rights. Protestants had fortified towns and armies

English Poor Law


Forces the poor to work

Twelve Years' Truce

1609 - 1621

Divide the Netherlands into Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Causes: Protestant unions vs. Catholics in the HRE, Spanish are threatening territory of HRE and France, Truce between Spanish and Dutch will expire soon, Austrian Habsburgs want to create a powerful empire, The Defenestration of Prague- First reason for the war.

Bohemian Phase

1618 - 1625

Bohemia deposes Emperor Matthias choose elector Palatine(Frederick V). Bohemia defeated, Catholic Victorym Spanish entrenched in Rhineland.

Danish Phase

1625 - 1635

Danish King leads Protestants, with Dutch and English aid, defeated by Wallenstien. Catholic Victory- reconvert Protestants. Edict of Restitution

Peace of Alais


Modifies Edict of Nantes, eliminates the fortified cities and Protestant armies. Created by Cardinal Richelieu

Swedish Phase

1630 - 1635

Sweden and France alarmed by Catholic and Habsburg victories. Gustavus Adolphus eventually loses Protestant support

Swedish-French Phase

1635 - 1648

France and Sweden continue to attack Germany, while Spain invades France, Germans drive out foreign invaders.

Peace of Westphalia


Divides and weakens the HRE. Calvinism added to the Peace of Augsburg. Acceptance of religious disunity. FRANCE EMERGES AS MOST POWERFUL NATION

Unit V: The Establishment of West European Leadership


English Civil War

1642 - 1653

Fronde Rebellion

1648 - 1653

Rebellion by Nobility- helps Louis XIV because it makes people want more stability.


1649 - 1660

Puritan Republic

1653 - 1660


1660 - 1688

Act of Settlement


Make each town responsible for its poor

Dutch allies with Sweden and England

1667 - 1668

Against France; France ends up withdrawing from Spanish Netherlands

Test Act of 1673


All office holders must be Anglican

Treaty of Nimwegen


France and the Dutch Republic made peace. Sweden was not part of the treaty, but a paragraph in the treaty forced the Dutch Republic to take a neutral approach toward Sweden.

Siege of Vienna


Leopold I held back Turks. Last attempt for Ottoman Empire to take over.

James II's son Baptized Catholic


Glorious Revolution


Toleration Act


Bill of Rights


Act of Settlement


No Catholic could ever be king of England

United Kingdom of Britain


Brings Scotland under British crown

Provisions of Peace of Utrect


Unit VI: The Transformations of Eastern Europe