Communications Exam

Events

Hieroglyphics

3100 BCE

-System of 700 symbols, signs that look like what they represent
-Shift from stone to papyrus - faster, more efficient
-Allows fro a fundamentally different structure of civilization
-Means of communication became more complex, more standardized, universal language
-Rosetta Stone - explained what ancient hieroglyphs meant: 1/3 hieroglyphics, 1/3 demotic script, 1/3 Greek script

Cunieform

3100 BCE

-Shape of utensils used to write/draw on clay
-Shifted from the pictograph form to more abstract
-Efficiency and faster, increasing populations - increase demands for record keeping
-No curves, all straight lines, abstract shapes allowed for more to be recorded faster
-Stella of Hummarabi was written in cuneiform

Parchment

200 BCE

-Made from skins of domestic animals (sheep, goats)
-Vellum made from newborn calves - higher quality, better standard
-Local resource but not unlimited
-Folded and bound together to make a codex - book
-Used throughout Europe up to the 1500's

Paper

100 BCE

-Invented in China
-Made from mulberry bark, hemp, fishnets, and rags
-Brought to Europe in the 12th century and in wide use by the 15th century

The Gutenberg Bible

1454

-Moveable type
-Gives rise to the spread of literacy and language
-Can now print in multiple languages - don't in the vernacular

Automated Textile Production

1801

Jacquard Loom

Heliograph

1827

-Image burned onto surface from sun exposure

Telegraph

1830 - 1839

-Continuos current that you interrupt by pressing a lever to speak in morse code
-Much faster, instantaneous communication
-Wire were under water - coated in Gutta Percha
-Globalization of news and information
-"Victorian Internet" - Standage
-Radically changes the way people are used to receiving information
-Many misconceptions about the technology

Daguerrotype

1830 - 1839

-Portrait studios developed
-Become a status symbol
-Linked with portrait painter to add colour
-Extremely expensive and laborious
-Used metal plates, extremely detailed
-Needed to be very skilled
-Produced only one image - the "positive"

Analytical Engine

1834

Charles Babbage
-Basically a giant calculator
-Could perform equations
-Put data in and new data comes out
-Could only work with numbers

Calotype/Talbotype

1840 - 1849

-Switched from metal to paper
-Used a different chemical compound
-Allowed multiple images to be printed from a single source
-Image that burned on the paper was the inverse - the "negative"

Wet-Plate Photography

1860 - 1869

Roger Fenton
-Photographic wagon
-Smear gel on gass plate and develop in dark room wagon before it dries
-High quality, precise photos
-Expensive and labourious
-First aerial photo of Boston from balloon

Federal Dead, Gettysburg

1863

Matthew Brady
-Considered the founding father of photojournalism
-First photographic evidence of war

Dry-Plate Photography

1870 - 1879

-Frees up some of the limitations
-Gel can be reapplied and developed later
-No longer need to bring around the dark room wagon

Telephone

1870 - 1879

-Direct and instantaneous communication
-Developed incredibly fast
-Radically changed how people were used to sending and receiving information

Nipkow Disk

1884

-TV
-Spinning disk with small holes
-Captures images that are encoded and projected onto another disk that presents it as audible and visual scenes
-Direct circuit
-Motion pictures are just stand images that are changed so quickly that we perceive it as video

Kodak

1888

-Emergence of fragmented photographic industry
-Not expensive or laborious
-Box comes preloaded with 25 exposures
-Send it in and they send back your pictures
-"You press the button and we do the rest"
-Democratized the image
-"Era of throwaway images"
-Beginning of photography itself as a mass media

Limited Film

1895

-10 - 12 minutes long

Transmits Wireless Message

1895

Guglielmo Marconi
-Business man
-Used telegraph model and morse code

Yellow Journalism

1896

-First comic: Yellow Dugan Kid

New York Journal

1898

Kodak Brownie

1901

Sends Trans-Atlantic Wireless Message

1901

Guglielmo Marconi
-Business man
-Used telegraph model and morse code

First Point to Mass Message

1906

Reginald Fessenden
-Transmitted voice and music instead of dots and dashes
-Worked on broadcasting to everyone rather than just one spot to another localized spot
-Sends simultaneously on a mass scale
-Beginning of the radio

Colour Photography

1907

Longer Films

1910

-Up to 40 - 50 minutes long

Titanic

1912

Kern and Douglas:
-The one ship that could have saved them didn't get the message and the rest were too far away to help

Movie Industry

1920 - 1929

-Movie industry with genres well established

Zworykin

1920 - 1929

-Took Nipkow technology but allowed TV to happen electronically

Flash Photography

1925

First Patent for Electronic TV's

1927

Farnsworth

First Public TV Demo

1928

Alan Turing

1930 - 1939

-Never built but similar model as Babbage
-Information processing but with any language
-A system that could handle all input
-Founding principle for further development of computers

Cathode Ray Tube - Allen Dumont

1930 - 1939

Spiegel:
-First commercial electronic TV set available in the U.S.
-Spiegel talks about how TV's become pieces of furniture in the home and are designed that way
-TV ad for electronic waves shooting through the air

Differential Analyzer

1930 - 1939

Vannevar Bush
-Massive machine, input and output table
-Shafts and geas used for interconnection
-Torque amplifier, integrator disk

War of the Worlds

1938

Orson Welles
-Radio broadcast known as the panic broadcast
-People tuned in not knowing it was a performance
-People believed it was a national emergency
-Caused hysteria
-Prompted a broad radio censorship

Manhattan Project

1942

-Produced 4 atomic bombs: 1 was tested in New Mexico, 2 were dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the 4th was never used

60,000 TV's Sold

1947

Project Whirlwind

1947

Jay Forrester
-Flight stimulator
-Worked towards real-time feedback
-Central to digital media and computing

Over 3 Million TV's Sold

1950

Distributed Networks

1950 - 1959

Paul Baran
-There were centralized and decentralized communication networks that would get wiped out under enemy attack
-With a distributed network, only one node would get destroyed and the rest would still be able to function

SAGE

1960

-Semi-Automated Ground Environment
-National air defence system
-Asses information and sends out a fast response
-23 SAGE station

NLS

1968

Douglas Englebart
-On-Line System
-Trying to figure out ways to collaborate in computational environments
-Augmentation Research Centre
-Tried to make a computer that was instantly responsive and constantly running
-Developed word precessing, windows, hypertext, conferencing, and the mouse
-Picks up on Vannevar Bush's associative system (memex)