did Rome fall?

Environmental

3rd Century Crisis

211 - 284

30 legitimate emperors over 70 years.

Cyprian Plague

250 - 280

Killed _____% of the population; fewer people = fewer taxes = slower economy

Late Antique Little Ice Age

536 - 670

global cooling, likely due to volcanic events in 536, 540, and 547. Evidence from ice cores and Lake Van.

Justinian plague

542 - 612

most likely the first strain of the Bubonic plague; strikes intermittently for 200 years...transported by fleas, kill approximately 1/3 of population (230,000 in Constantinople)...starting to be able to find the virus in ancient DNA (yersinia pestus), follows great economic (trade) expansion.

Western Roman Empire

Diocletian

284 - 305

Military general...reformed military structure (limitanei and comitatenses), reasserted control along the borders, recruited for the army through tax breaks, built forts along the frontier...created the tetrarchy, split the empire to east and west, professionalized civil service, more merit-based...implemented the annona...retired to Salona, Damaltia.

Price Edict

301

Froze prices in an effort to curb inflation.

Constantine

305 - 337

declared Augustus by troops in York...defeated Magnentius in Italy (and thus all of Western Empire) in 312, became emperor of East and West in 316

Battle of Milvian Bridge

312

Constantine sees sign from God (sun god, Solar halo?) that will ensure victory. He is victorious over Maxentius and goes to Rome in trumph.

Constantius II

353 - 361

Constantine's son...defeated the usurper Magnentius...made Constantinople a rival to Rome.

Julian

361 AD - 363 AD

"the Apostate", last Pagan emperor...skilled military commander (started in Britain and Gaul)...killed in war in Persia.

Valentinian

363 - 375

Co-emperor with Valens in the East...refortified Rhine frontier...emperor when Goths crossed the Danube.

Gratian

379 - 388

Valentinian's son...did nothing of importance? Just very confusing context for Theodosius.

Stilicho in Power

395 - 408

Roman-Vandal general, aids young Honorius after death of Theodosius, executed by Roman Senate.

Sack of Rome

410

Thx Alaric.

Odoacer

476 - 493

Overthrew Romulus Augustus the "last Roman Emperor"...Verina's nephew, working with ERE to establish control in WRE?

Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, in Italy

493 - 526

Restores Colosseum, builds new infrastructure, leaves senate with civil power.

Justinian's Campaign in the West

533 - 545

Against the opinion of imperial court...successfully retakes Sardinia, Tripolitania (Africa), goes easily through Sicily, progress slows around Naples (536...LALIA)

Justinian re-conquers Ravenna

540

Has a portrait of himself, flanked by the military and the Senate, and one for Theodora made for the fancy church there.

Frontier

war with Persia

253 - 260

3rd century crisis...Shapur I captured Emperor Valerian.

Tarquimpol

350 - 415

look into more archaeological evidence.

the Franks capitalize

353 - 355

During Magnentius's usurpation against Constantius II the Franks raid and gain wealth from frontier Roman cities.

Frontier re-fortfied

362 - 380

Under Julian and Valentinian

Arbogast in control at Trier

395 - 427

Former Roman army general, defected and went to Trier.

Vandals invade Gaul

405 - 429

No more $ for troops

427

b/c of ______ usurpation

Vandals in Africa

429 - 536

continue exporting grain to Eastern Roman Empire

Attila the Hun

434 - 453

Imperial coins minted

450

in Trier...Evidence from lecture

Huns invade Gaul

451 - 453

Defeated by joint Roman-Visigothic force.

Clovis

481 - 511

Christian...aligned with Roman aristocrats...defeated Visigoths in Toulouse (507)...celebrated with Roman triumphal ceremony

War with Persia

527 - 562

Justin I works with Persians to control the Caucasus...Justinian annexes joint forts to Roman Empire in 527, provokes war...drags on for 40 years, local residents are mixed Roman and Arabs

Vandals capture Carthage

539

Brunhilda

566 - 613

Visigothic princess married into Merovingians...centralized monarchical power in France; disliked by aristocracy...defeated by aristocracy in 3rd Civil War.

Dagobert

623 - 638

incorporated church into state for a unified France...last Good King of France...replaced by Carolingian aristocratic regime

Eastern Roman Empire

Constantinople Built

330

by Constantine.

Valens

363 - 378

Co-Emperor with Valentinian...killed at Adrianople.

Battle of Adrianople

378

Goths defeat the Eastern Roman Empire; establish permanent settlement within the Roman Empire.

Theodosius

379 - 395

Incorporated Gothic tribes into the empire as foederati...defeated usurper Maximus...rebuilt the ERE

1st Law Code

438

Made under Theodosius II

Zeno

474 - 491

Empress = Verina...conspired to put Odoacer in place...no clue what else he did.

Anastasius

491 - 518

the "bean counter"...abolished the annona (taxing in kind, sales tax) in favor of a land tax

Justin I

518 - 527

Illiterate, but paved the way for nephew Justinian.

Justinian

527 - 565

Born in Iustiniana Prima (Serbia), rebuilt the Hagia Sophia, reconquered Africa and Italy, rewrote the law textbook (literally)

Justinian Code

528

condenses, eliminates redundancies, generally improves the imperial law code; evidence of Theodora's ideas present.

Nika Revolt

532

Revolt in the Hippodrome against Justinian to protest his expensive war campaigns which required lots of taxes...all killed by Belisarius, consolidates Justinian's power.

Antioch sacked

542

by Persians

Egypt lost

614

Cultural

Constantine steadily expands power of the Christian Church

316 - 337

He is a heterodox Christian (not an Arian)

Ecumenical Council

325

@ Nicaea (in Asia minor or southern Gual) debates the merits of orthodox Christianity (father, son, holy spirit are all one) and Arianism (hierarchy withing God: father > son > holy spirit)

Ammianus Marcellinus

330 - 395

Soldier, Greek (pagan), historian of the 4th century. Born in Antioch, Syria. Lecturer in Rome 390-392. Critical of Theodosius I triumph over usurper Maximus.

Constantine converts

337

On his death bed...finally.

"Enemies of the Human Race" aka magicians

358

ordered by Constantius II

Critical point: Christianity > Paganism

Approx. 380

evidence: Pagan ceremonial sites = systematically destroyed and then left untouched by Christians.

Apostates = legally persecuted

391

Under Theodosius I, final imperial victory over paganism.

Chariot Races in Trier

425

Evidence: check.

Events