30 legitimate emperors over 70 years.
Killed _____% of the population; fewer people = fewer taxes = slower economy
global cooling, likely due to volcanic events in 536, 540, and 547. Evidence from ice cores and Lake Van.
most likely the first strain of the Bubonic plague; strikes intermittently for 200 years...transported by fleas, kill approximately 1/3 of population (230,000 in Constantinople)...starting to be able to find the virus in ancient DNA (yersinia pestus), follows great economic (trade) expansion.
Military general...reformed military structure (limitanei and comitatenses), reasserted control along the borders, recruited for the army through tax breaks, built forts along the frontier...created the tetrarchy, split the empire to east and west, professionalized civil service, more merit-based...implemented the annona...retired to Salona, Damaltia.
Froze prices in an effort to curb inflation.
declared Augustus by troops in York...defeated Magnentius in Italy (and thus all of Western Empire) in 312, became emperor of East and West in 316
Constantine sees sign from God (sun god, Solar halo?) that will ensure victory. He is victorious over Maxentius and goes to Rome in trumph.
Constantine's son...defeated the usurper Magnentius...made Constantinople a rival to Rome.
"the Apostate", last Pagan emperor...skilled military commander (started in Britain and Gaul)...killed in war in Persia.
Co-emperor with Valens in the East...refortified Rhine frontier...emperor when Goths crossed the Danube.
Valentinian's son...did nothing of importance? Just very confusing context for Theodosius.
Roman-Vandal general, aids young Honorius after death of Theodosius, executed by Roman Senate.
Overthrew Romulus Augustus the "last Roman Emperor"...Verina's nephew, working with ERE to establish control in WRE?
Restores Colosseum, builds new infrastructure, leaves senate with civil power.
Against the opinion of imperial court...successfully retakes Sardinia, Tripolitania (Africa), goes easily through Sicily, progress slows around Naples (536...LALIA)
Has a portrait of himself, flanked by the military and the Senate, and one for Theodora made for the fancy church there.
3rd century crisis...Shapur I captured Emperor Valerian.
look into more archaeological evidence.
During Magnentius's usurpation against Constantius II the Franks raid and gain wealth from frontier Roman cities.
Under Julian and Valentinian
Former Roman army general, defected and went to Trier.
b/c of ______ usurpation
continue exporting grain to Eastern Roman Empire
in Trier...Evidence from lecture
Defeated by joint Roman-Visigothic force.
Christian...aligned with Roman aristocrats...defeated Visigoths in Toulouse (507)...celebrated with Roman triumphal ceremony
Justin I works with Persians to control the Caucasus...Justinian annexes joint forts to Roman Empire in 527, provokes war...drags on for 40 years, local residents are mixed Roman and Arabs
Visigothic princess married into Merovingians...centralized monarchical power in France; disliked by aristocracy...defeated by aristocracy in 3rd Civil War.
incorporated church into state for a unified France...last Good King of France...replaced by Carolingian aristocratic regime
Co-Emperor with Valentinian...killed at Adrianople.
Goths defeat the Eastern Roman Empire; establish permanent settlement within the Roman Empire.
Incorporated Gothic tribes into the empire as foederati...defeated usurper Maximus...rebuilt the ERE
Made under Theodosius II
Empress = Verina...conspired to put Odoacer in place...no clue what else he did.
the "bean counter"...abolished the annona (taxing in kind, sales tax) in favor of a land tax
Illiterate, but paved the way for nephew Justinian.
Born in Iustiniana Prima (Serbia), rebuilt the Hagia Sophia, reconquered Africa and Italy, rewrote the law textbook (literally)
condenses, eliminates redundancies, generally improves the imperial law code; evidence of Theodora's ideas present.
Revolt in the Hippodrome against Justinian to protest his expensive war campaigns which required lots of taxes...all killed by Belisarius, consolidates Justinian's power.
He is a heterodox Christian (not an Arian)
@ Nicaea (in Asia minor or southern Gual) debates the merits of orthodox Christianity (father, son, holy spirit are all one) and Arianism (hierarchy withing God: father > son > holy spirit)
Soldier, Greek (pagan), historian of the 4th century. Born in Antioch, Syria. Lecturer in Rome 390-392. Critical of Theodosius I triumph over usurper Maximus.
On his death bed...finally.
ordered by Constantius II
evidence: Pagan ceremonial sites = systematically destroyed and then left untouched by Christians.
Under Theodosius I, final imperial victory over paganism.