Early Civilization Timeline




The first written mention of the kingdom comes from Arabic-language sources some time after the conquest of North Africa by Muslims, when geographers began compiling comprehensive accounts of the world known to Islam


800 - 1000

The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was a state located in western Africa. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest Islamic empires in history. This empire bore the same name as its leading ethnic group, the Songhai. Its capital was the city of Gao, where a Songhai state had existed since the 11th century. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present day Niger.

Overview of Ghana Empire

830 - 1235

Located in what is now southeastern Mauritania, and Western Mali.The Empire grew rich from the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt.


970 - 1054

The earliest descriptions of the Empire are vague as to its maximum extent, Ghana had forced Aghast in the desert to accept its rule sometime between 970 and 1054.



A tradition in historiography maintains that Ghana fell when it was sacked by the Almoravid movement in 1076, but this interpretation has been questioned. Dierk Lange, who believes that the Almoravids had an important role in Ghana's fall, notes that it was due to their instigation of internal political instability, rather than military actions or conquest.


1230 - 1600

he Mali Empire or Mandingo Empire or Manden Kurufa was a West African empire of the Mandinka The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa