An increase in harsh weather destroyed crops, driving prices of food skywards.
Caused by problems with land, commerce, and royal heirs, this war was one of the most major military conflicts of western history, and left a severe impact on the economies and societies of all of Europe
Known as the Black Death, this was an extraordinarily violent disease that rampaged the countryside, killing many
Marking a new era in Europe, the Renaissance was born in Italy, and rapidly grew and spread throughout her neighbors. Humanism and individualism were prevalent ideas, while a common belief of capability infected artists and citizens alike.
Many dynasties were born during this time, as the "new" monarchs of Europe took reign and made drastic changes. As society advanced, these monarchs were strong, took control, and got things done. Note the Tudor dynasty in England, and Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain
All European powers compete for new territory, explore and discover, and develop their foreign interactions
Although inspired by the Italian Renaissance, the Renaissance in the North was quite different, emphasizing traditional, conservative Christian beliefs and art more.
Charles V rules the Habsburg HRE
New denominations of Christianity are born
Martin Luther posts his problems with the Catholic Church, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
The Netherlands have a war with Spain for freedom, England and others get involved
Ivan IV rules Russia, harsh serfdom
The Pope tries to make Catholicism more appealing again by reforming it and getting rid of some of the bad stuff; tries to stop growth of Protestantism
New Era of art; grand, classical, impressive
Recognizes Lutheranism as an official religion
Queen of England; one of the best
Golden Age of the Neth; super good economy
Henry of Navarre and Margaret of Valois (a Catholic and a Huguenot) wedding day; A Huguenot leader gets killed, then they react, then the Catholics overreact and kill thousands of Huguenots. Civil War of the 3 Henry's starts
Henry of Navarre; "Paris is worth a mass;" loved
Catholic officials are forcibly ejected from a window by Protestants. Starts the 30 Years War
Massive Religious War fought in the HRE. Four phases: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and French/International. Protestants win.
Roundheads (Parliament) v. Cavaliers (Charles I). Par wins
Most important and famous Absolute monarch; domesticated nobility, expanded France, etc.
End of 30 Years War. Major turning point in history. Religious conflict is pretty much settled. Habsburg power is limited. Netherlands get official independence. Role of Pope/Catholic officials greatly reduced in Government.
All sorts of new scientific developments
Ideas are based on logic and reason
Stinky Raisin scares the crap outta Russian Gov't
Huge reforms, enlightened monarch, brings Russia up to speed
Turks are beat once and for all
William and Mary replace James II without any bloodshed; Absolutism is banished from England
Most influential enlightenment philosopher
New agriculture methods
Russia beats Sweden, becomes world power
Spain and France v. Rest of Europe; fight for French power
Ended War of Spanish Succession, balanced power
The Soldier's King of Prussia; "blue boys"
Enlightened Monarchs of Austria (Habsburgs)
Enlightened Monarch of Prussia
Radical Jacobin Leader during French Rev
Enlightened Monarch of Russia
Absolute French Monarch at end of French Rev, very powerful
Cruddy French King during French Rev
The massive new revolution in France, Louis XVI, Robsepierre, then Bonaparte