In 1564, Galileo was born to Vincenzo Galilei and Giulia degli Ammannati in Pisa, Italy, being the oldest sibling in a family of six.
When Galileo's family moved to Florence, he attended the monastery of Vallombrosa. Some describe this location as the origin for his interest in physics when he had seen a lamp hanging and swinging with perfect rhythm, taking the same time to swing across any distance.
In 1581, Galileo was enrolled into the University of Pisa to study medicine. By 1585 however, he was forced out of the university due to lack of funds, without completing his degree.
In this period of time, Galileo made most of his discoveries on the solar system including his support for the Heliocentric system theory. In 1611, he went to Rome to demonstrate his revised telescope.
Galileo's first revision of the telescope was created in 1609. At the time, telescopes that were already existing could only magnify objects three times, in contrast to Galileo's revision which allowed for twenty times magnification. This invention was vital to the progression of his research, as it allowed him to observe the stars and planets and further grasp their motion, leading him to support the Heliocentric model and other important discoveries.
After a three year dispute over Galileo's findings involving Aristotelian scholars, the Catholic Church finally banned all writings by Galileo regarding his support for the Heliocentric theory. The church saw his beliefs as heresy and warned Galileo not to defend his stance further.
In 1633, Galileo was put on trial for his beliefs. This was not primarily because he supported the Heliocentric theory, but because of his opposition of the Catholic Church, along with him recently publishing his famous Dialogue work. He was convicted for heresy and put under house arrest as a punishment.
Galileo died in his home under house arrest early in 1642, after suffering from heart palpitations and fever. Before death, he wrote all of his final thoughts in a journal which was later published.