HIST 007 timeline: Part 2

Common Era Lecture 10 - onwards

Geological epochs

Holocene

0 AD - 1800

LIA start

1300

Anthropocene

1800 - Present

LIA end

1850

Climatic Periods

Vandal Min

200 AD - 800 AD

Dark Ages

400 - 900

Brooke: The Dark Ages, AD 400-900
- Floods, Asian monsoons
- Sporadic ENSO pattern
- ITCZ shifted south, dropping northern temps
- Ice rafting in N Atlantic bracketed dark ages

  • Population stagnation in Europe and China
  • Mayans shaped by droughts

Mystery of 536 CE

536 AD

Volcanoes and maybe meteor cooled world in 536 CE

LALIA

536 AD - 650 AD

MWP/MCA

950 - 1250

General
- Persistent La Nina
- Positive NAO (warmer, wetter Europe)
- MWP did NOT lead to warmer temps everywhere at once - ex) China

LIA

1300 - 1850

Great Acceleration

1950 - Present

LIA (1300-1850) fluctuations

Sporer Min

1450 - 1530
  • 1450 – solar activity declined to lows unseen for thousancs of yrs.
  • Across the N Hem, temps declined by around .5 deg C
  • NAO was often in a negative setting. In some places, storms grew more common

Grindelwald Fluctuation

1560 - 1595
  • Although solar activity increased, global temps decline in 1560
  • Volcanic eruptions definitely contributed ot the cooling, but only after 1595

Why did it get cold?
- Arg: butterfly effect : natural variability
- Arg: Depop of americas (eco imp)
--- Ag monocultured are bad carbon sinks. Forests are good carbon sinks.
--- As forests replace ag fields, it pulls warm carbon out causing cooling

Maunder Min

1645 - 1720

1645: Decrease in solar activity
Coolest decade of the LIA

Why?
- Volcanic eruptions

Dalton Min

1790 - 1830

Low solar activity

  • Two huge eruptions
  • Worst was in 1809 and 1815
  • 1816 “year without summer”

Year w/o summer

1816

European Events

Wars of Justinian

533 - 550

Bubonic Plague

541 - 542
  • Swept through the Roman Empire killing as many as 50 million people

Late Medieval Expansion

1000 - 1300

By 1000 CE, Euro ag was changing:
- Watermills
- The three field system replaced the two-field system
By 1300 CE, population tripled to 70 mil
- Monasteries the vanguards of vast forest clearings

--> Pop growth = need more ag land

Great Cattle Plague

1315 - 1325
  • Virus = Rinderpest
  • Lack of fertilizer --> Many Euro farmers could no longer cultivate and fertilize their crops --> great famine

Black Death

1338 - 1380

Black Death was very different from the Modern bubonic plague.
- The BPlague has killed more than 3% of the infected and always spread slowly
- The BDeath spread too quickly for flea vectors (rodents)
- Elderly and young didn’t suffer the most
- Can gain immunity to the BDeath

Dutch Golden Age

1590 - 1690
  • A Capitalist, urbanized, commercial society
  • Golden Age coincided with the Global Crisis

Takeaways:
- The commercial econ of the repubic was less vilnerable to climate change than its neighbors
- Merchants and travelers could endure AND exploit otherwise destructive climate changes

Lots of wars

1600 - 1700

Overpop stretched ag resources
- lots of wars
- Introduction of firearms and italian baston. Expensive.
- Succession struggles
- Strengthening states often overreached

TAKEAWAY: less stable states

Arctic Events

MWP melts Arctic ice

950 - 1250

MWP/MCA Arctic
- Profound change - melting sea ice
- Dorset: relied on sea ice. Melting --> techniques less effective
- Thule: violently replaced the dorset. Migrated (unknown reasons).

Norse die off

1250 - 1300
  • A cooling climate led to tough times for the Norse in Greenland, but they tried to adapt
  • 1300s: euro tastes switched form walrus to elephant ivory, and ciolence broke out between the Thule and Norse communities (which the Thule seemed to be winning)
  • The crusader state was wiped out by 1291. The disease environment worked against the Europeans

Euro quests to Arctic

1549 - 1611

Three voyages
- Dutch Quest for NE passage (Russia) 1594-1597
- Anglo-Dutch for N passage 1607-1611
- Aglo-Dutch whaling

Caribbean/N America Events

Maya Classic Period

300 - 800

Spanish arrive in the Caribbean

1500
  • Hurricanes undermined trade routes and settlements. But not enough.
  • Thus: Millions indigenous people died through murder, foreced labor, and disease
  • 1500-1620: as they vanished, forests expanded

Caribbean/Am revolts

1776 - 1825
  • Sugar plantations → deforestation
  • Port cities → coastlines vulnerable to hurricanes --> TAKE AWAY: Suffering/violence in the wake of hurricans led to pressure for emancipation and compensation
  • Meanwhile, dieases protected revolution. Ex) Haitian revolution

South America events

Euros arrive in Brazil

1500
  • Waged war throughout 1500s
  • 90% decline in population of the Americas
  • New pathogens = deadly

Deforestation
- cleared land for plantations

1st Portuguese settlements in Brazil

1530

Dutch conquer Brazil

1630 - 1654
  • Kept until 1654
  • thanks partly to the relative health of Dutch soldiers
  • Key: YF and Malaria weren’t there yet

Asia Events

Collapse of the Han

220

Very cold China

1630 - 1644

Fall of the Ming

1640

China - cold in the 1630s and early 1640s.
- Terrible harvests --> famines that caused distress in overpopulated regions
- Lost Mandate of Heaven

Rise of the Manchu - Est. Qing Dynasty

1644

Invasions start 1 yr after conclusion of the Grindelwald Fluctuation in Europe

Cooling/drying → more severe suffering in neighbouring, militaristic Manchuria
- Solution: invade china and plunder its wealth
- The Manchus ultimately capitalized on the struggle b/n Ming and bandit armies by seizing China and founding the Qing Dynasty in 1644