Italy in the Early 20th Century: Facts

Look back at 5 mindmaps for more info

Economy and Society in the Early 20th Century

New stable banking system created

1894
  • Giolitti founded the bank of Italy (Banca Commerciale Italiana) in 1893
  • Drew money from Austria + Germany
  • Helped to cause investment in industry + technology

Annual budget surplus

1896 - 1910
  • Sidney Sonnino cut public spending + raised taxes on raw materials in the form of tariffs
  • 25 lire / 1 pound
  • encouraged investor confidence
  • more investment in Iron + steel

50,000 kilowatts created from new Hydroelectric power in Alpine Valleys

1898
  • free from importing coal
  • more sustainable
  • Improve people's lives - 930,000 tons in 1913

Economic Expansion in North

1899 - 1914

Iron + steel industry grew
- Fiat establishing in Turin in 1901 expanding into other forms of vehicles by 1908

1,500 strikes involving nearly 350,000 workers

1901 - 1911
  • Due to poor treatment in North and South
  • Need reform

1,000 locomotives built

1905 - 1908
  • more people/businesses attracted to Italian life

600,000 Italians living in N.Y. from South

1910

Standard of living lower in the south than north

1911
  • most Italians poor, unsanitized and increasingly frustrated
  • 25,000 died due to cholera between 1910 - 1911

Income per head great in the North than South

1911

Political System in the Early 20th Century

29 changes in PM

1870 - 1922
  • shows government is unstable and short lived
  • politicians withdraw support of PM if offered a better deal - 'transformismo'

Pope Pius IX makes decree forbidding standing or voting in national elections

1886
  • election turnout poor
  • 'Roman question' fears increased as Catholic church refuses to legitimise the unified nation

Battle of Adwa

1 March 1896
  • Humiliation accentuated anger between political class
  • 5,000 troops died
  • Catalyst of mass protests

100 killed in Milan

May 1898
  • Government crackdown on protests against political system
  • Encouraged anarchism - KIng Umberto I killed 2 years later

200,000 southern Italians left on average every year

1901 - 1913
  • Gov encouraged development in Naples, S. Italy
  • Failed: relied to heavily on emigration for S people to get good jobs

North - South Divide in the Early 20th Century

25,000 died in Naples due to Cholera epidemic

1910 - 1911
  • fact to show how S. Italy was the one of the most impoverished area in Europe
  • 1/2 of the population was illiterate also

Industrial economic expansion in areas of Bologna, Turin + Milan

1911
  • Impact from politicians not acting upon 'the southern question'
  • Increased southern poverty as agriculture stagnated
  • Due to more people moving to North (who could)

Italy as a 'great power' in the Early 20th Century

France + Britain claim Tunisia for themselves

1881
  • shows that Italy had no strong military
  • In a weak position to claim land

Battle of Adwa

1 March 1896
  • worst defeat suffered by European power in Africa
  • 5,000 troops killed
  • Showed Italy was far from a great power, both in reality and perceived by it's citizens to be