Social 11 : Cold War Timeline

Cold War

The United Nations

June 1945 - Present

The United Nations is created in San Francisco and it’s a replacement for the ineffective League of Nations. The original goal of the UN was to help the peace and releases the conflicts in different areas and countries. The UN also established many agencies such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF. Canada has been one of the strong supporters of the UN since its creation in 1945.

Spy Ring

September 1945

A Soviet spy Igor Gouzenko defect to Canada from the Soviet Union. He warned Canadian government about spie’s existence and had to wore a white hood for anonymity. The RCMP found eight spies and imprisoned.

NATO

1949

NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
A military alliance comprised of Canada, the United States, Great Britain and other Western European nations. It was created as a military defense alliance and protect them from the threat of invasion by Soviet Union. In response the Eastern Bloc in 1955.

Korea War

June 1950 - July 1953

A War broke out as North Korea tried to invade South Korea. Canada send 27000 troops to the Korea War and Canada’s Minister of External Affairs Lester Pearson urged all sides to agree to a ceasefire in 1953.

Lester Pearson

1952

Lester Pearson becomes Canada’s ambassador to the United Nations.

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

Vietnam was divide into north(communist) and south(capitalist, supported by the U.S). In 1969, the U.S lost the war to North Vietnam supported by Russia and China. Prime Minister Pearson was not overly convinced that U.S intervention in Vietnam was a wise move. And Canadian businesses sold boots, engines to the U.S but not directly involved in the Vietnam War.

Suez Crisis

October 1956 - November 1956

Egypt takes over Suez Canal (supported by Russia) form Britain and French investors.(supported by U.S) The United Nations sent the emergency force to Suez Canal and agreed the solutions of Pearson.

Nobel Peace Prize

1957

Pearson didn't directly involved in the Suez Crisis. For his part in preventing all out war, Lester Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Price

The Avro Arrow (cancelled)

March 1958 - February 1959

Canada developed the Avro Arrow, a state-of-the-art supersonic jet aircraft. It was at the forefront for technology at the front. But Diefenbaker's conservatives cancelled the project, the reason is still widespread disputed.

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 16, 1962 - October 28, 1962

U.S surveillance planes spot Russian missiles being built in Cuba, it was a real threat. Prime Minister Diefenbaker preferred the U.S send a fact-finding mission to Cuban and reluctant to have Canada drawn into a major conflict. In the end, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if the U.S not invade Cuba.

United Nations Forces in Cyprus

1964 - Present

Canada participates in a U.N. peacekeeping mission to Cyprus. (longest United Nation peacekeeping mission). The purpose was to maintain balance between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots in their newly created island.

Vietnam War

1965 - 1973

Vietnam was divide into north(communist) and south(capitalist, supported by the U.S). Prime Minister Pearson was not overly convinced that U.S intervention in Vietnam was a wise move. Canadian businesses sold boots, airplane engines to the U.S defense department but didn't directly involved in the war. In 1969, the US lost the war to North Vietnam supported by Russia and China.

Recognition of Communist China

1970 - Present

Trudeau’s government officially recognizes Communist government of the People's Public of China(rather than Taiwan). He thinks China was clearly a great power and an important trading partner.

Trudeau Visited China

1973

Pierre Trudeau visits Communist China on a peace mission. This landmark trip to China is the first official visit by a Canadian prime minister.

Trudeau Visited Communist Cuba

1976

Trudeau visits Communist Cuba. It was a visit that marked a turning point in Canada’s relationship with Cuba.

Berlin Wall Fell

November 1989 - Present

Berlin Wall comes down, symbolizing the end of the Cold War .East and West Berlin became reunited with the demolishing of the Berlin War.

The Gulf War Against Iraq

August 1990 - February 1991

Canada sends troops to support the U.S. in the Gulf War against Iraq and this action was Peace keeping. It's called the "Operation Desert Storm". The golf war destroyed the Iraqi fighting force and marked victory.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

December 1991 - Present

Soviet Union dissolves into 15 countries in 1991. The U.S was the only superpower remained after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Bosnia and Croatia

1992 - 1995

Ethnic wars broke out in 1991, Serbia want uniting all their population into one country and were forces moved into the province of Kosovo in 1998. NATO began bombing Yugoslavia and try to stop Serbs from Persecuting, murdering Albanians in Kosovo.

Somalia (shame)

1992

Members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment arrested a Somali teenage and was tortured to death. This shadow had been cast upon the reputation of Canada’s armed forces and dubbed as “Canada’s national shame”.

Chaos in Haiti

1993 - 1997

Civil war and chaos in Haiti: Canada sends soldiers and joined the war.

Disaster in Rwanda

1994 - 1995

The central African country of Rwanda was torn apart by ethnic rivalries. The United Nations didn’t involved in the issue. Within a few weeks, close to a million people had died in the conflict.

Canada Prime Minister

Mackenzie King

October 23, 1935 - November 14, 1948

Louis St-Laurent

November 15, 1948 - June 20, 1957

Diefenbaker

June 21, 1957 - April 21, 1963

Pearson

April 22, 1963 - April 19, 1968

Trudeau

April 20, 1968 - June 3, 1979

Brian Mulroney

September 17, 1984 - June 25, 1993