During this time period, Medel performed experiments on different pea plants to determine the probability of gaining a certain trait, or "gene", from your parent. We can now determine what our children would look like when different traits are added and combined to ours through modern technology.
Edwin Chargaff discovered that DNA contained deoxyribose, a phosphate group, as well as four other molecules. On top of that, he discovered that adenine and thymine always paired together and guanine and cytosine always paired together. Because of this discovery, it lead to scientists figuring out the shape of the actual molecule itself.
During this time period, Marshall Nirenberg and National Institutes of Health colleagues started to focus on and primarily research protein synthesis in DNA, and what role RNA has in the synthesis. In a matter of years, they had deciphered the code for the 60 mRNA codons for all 20 amino acids.
The Human Genome project started during this time. They started doing research to map and sequence the Human Genome, and to analyse DNA.
During this time period, Calgene Incorporated released the first genetically modified food, that was deemed safe for consumption by humans. The food was a tomato that was able to resist rotting.
During 2002, a mouse was the first "mammalian" to have it's Genome decoded. The good thing about this is that mice and humans Genomes match up by 90%, thus giving us not only an insight into animals but also humans.
In 2003, the human genome project was announced as completed, and also marked as one of the greatest achievements of mankind. They were able to complete the project early, as well as being way under budget.