Con Law

Structure, New BoRs

Articles of Confederation

1777 - 1781

From adoption by Continental Congress thru ratification by all States

Constitutional Convention

May 14, 1787

Constitution

1789

1A - 10A

March 4, 1794 - Feb 7, 1795

Passed by Congress through ratified by States

Calder v. Bull

1798

Chase v. Iredell

Marbury v. Madison

1803

jud review, cts can strike

McCulloch

1819

implicit N + P pwrs must be tacked to enum.d pwr

Barron

1833

BoRs only go against fed govt

Luther v. Borden

1849

self-lim at pol Q

Civil War

April 12, 1861 - May 9, 1865

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co.

1952

exec order seizure against cong will

Cooper v. Aaron

1958

judicial supremacy

Baker v. Carr

1962

mod pol Q

Katzenbach v. Morgan

1966

14A s5 ratchett

Employment Division v. Smith

1990

viol needs intent

City of Boerne v. Flores

1997

City of Boerne v. Flores

1997

14A s5 power dn incorporate 1A, likely not others either; need C + P

Heller

2008

McDonald

2010

14A DP inc.s 2A s.t. it goes against states/local

Federalism

Drexel Furniture

1922

tax power x lim

Butler

1936

X amd lims spending power

Nat'l League of Cities

1976

'trad govt functions' x lim on ISC

Garcia

1985

declining to arbitrate when process working

South Dakota v. Dole

1987

4-prong acceptable "pressure" on States

New York

1992

commandeering leg.s

Printz

1997

commandeering exec.s

Reno v. Condon

2000

State as other than sov

Morrison

2000

State must provide private remedy, state inaction is not state action

NFIB

2012

can't coerce States, ACA conditional grant & penalty econ dragooning

Commerce Clause

E.C. Knight

1895

'local' internal lim

Hammer v. Dagenhart

1918

x lim of purpose

Schecter Poultry

1935

indirect effects = isc

Carter v. Carter Coal

1936

Schecter for before ISC

Darby

1941

Comm Cl is a plenary power - can be used as means and end with any purpose (overruling Dagenhart) as long as it does so with appropriate means and not otherwise unconst.l

Wickard

1942

agg principle

Katzenbach v. McClung

1964

rational basis review of activity, after agg.g, that reg scheme necy for close tie

Heart of Atlanta Motel

1964

Hunt v. Wash St App Growers

1977

facially nondiscrim unconst.l cuz discrim effect: protectionist purp, and/or burden on ISC outweighs local benefit

Maine v. Taylor

1986

fac discrim gets SS: legit purpose, and lack of alternate means

West Lynn Creamery

1994

Discrim effect of optics

Lopez

1995

ISC may only regulate sufficiently commercial (economic) activities

Morrison

2000

VAW not econ despite record

Gonzalez v. Raich

2004

rational basis review for substantial effects of econ activity

NFIB

2012

ACA individ mandate constitutional as tax, not ISC

Discrimination

Dred Scott

1857

Plessy

1859

Civil Rights Cases

1883

Yick Wo

1886

unconst.l discrim as-applied by admins

Lochner

1905

14A SDP free to K

West Coast Hotel

1937

Carolene

1938

Korematsu

1944

Shelley v. Kraemer

1948

Brown v. Board

1954

school seg viol 14A EP cuz "inherently unequal" - "all deliberate speed"?

Bolling v. Sharpe

1954

rev-inc of 14A EP into 5A DP

Williamson v. Lee Optical

1955

Lassiter

1959

lit tests ok

Griswold v. Connecticuit

1965

Katzenbach v. Morgan

1966

upholding Voting Rs Act 1965 lit test lim - ratchett

Loving

1967

Reed

1971

irrational efficiency rational - creeping to heightened scrtu

Palmer v. Thompson

1971

purpose not enough

Frontiero

1973

plurality on scrutiny

Craig v. Boren

1976

Washington v. Davis

1976

Bakke

1978

Feeny

1979

Cronson

1989

failed NT

Adarand v. Pena

1995

Gratz

2003

Grutter

2003

Obergefell

2015

Fisher

2016