Rome overthrew its last king and created a republic.
The Han dynasty had reigned during this time. They extended the boundaries of its empire far into the sands of central Asia and southward along the coast of the South China sea.
202 BC - 221 AD
Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, which proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity.
Muhammad, the Prophet, was born in Makkah, a town of about three thousand located in the desert lands of the Arabian Peninsula.
John Locke published, Two Treaties of Government, which criticized absolutism and defended the Glorious Revolution. He described how governments are formed, and what justifies them.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his work, The Social Contract, which presented a new idea about society.
James Watt develops the steam engine.
The Second Continental Congress of the U.S. approved a declaration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson.
The army of General Cornwallis surrendered to the combined army of American and French forces under George Washington.
The Estates-General was called to have a meeting about France's financial debt.
Simon Bolivar began the struggle for independence in Venezuela and then went on to lead revolts in New Granada and Ecuador.
Representatives of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia gathered in Vienna to work to restore the old order.
James Monroe created the Monroe Doctrine which declared that the American continents were "henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers."
Saturation of goods in Western Europe led to the need for new materials: Africa.
Henry Stanley was hired by King Leopold II to set up Belgian settlements in the Congo.
A poem named "The White Man's Burden", was written to justify European imperialism.
Streetcars and subways powered by electricity became to appear in major European cities.
African leaders in South Africa founded what would become the African National Congress. It was created to protect African rights in the Rhodesias, Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland.