ap euro timeline 2

Renaissance and Trade

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

A period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

Invention of the printing press


The invention of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century allowed these cultural trends to spread to other parts of Europe, (The northern renaissance). The Italian renaissance writers were primarily interested in secular concerns, but in the north of Europe, the renaissance dealt with religious concerns and ultimately helped lay the foundation for the movement known as the protestant reformation.

Leonardo Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter, Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).

Gutenburg prints the bible


end of 100 years' war


Lasted 116 Years Between France And England And Divides Their Territory

Pico della Mirandola

1463 - 1494

Born in Italy in 1463, philosopher Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola authored Oration on the Dignity of Man, one of the most famous Renaissance texts. He was also the first Christian scholar to use Kabbalistic doctrine in support of Christian theology.


1469 - 1527

Niccolò Machiavelli, or more formally Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science.

ferdinand and isabella crowned in spain


First Political Marriage That Joins Their Two Lands- Commission Christopher Columbus- Spanish Inquisition

Michelangelo Buonarroti

1475 - 1564

Michelangelo (1475-1564) was a sculptor, painter and architect widely considered to be one of the greatest artists of the Italian Renaissance period—and arguably of all time. His work demonstrated a blend of psychological insight, physical realism and intensity never before seen.

Northern Renaissance

1480 - 1648

The ideas and influence of the Italian Renaissance spread to other areas of Europe. The "Northern" Renaissance refers to Renaissance art, architecture, and philosophy that took place outside of Italy.

Orations on the dignity of men (Pico della Mirandola)


Pico Della Mirandola authored Oration on the Dignity of Man, one of the most famous Renaissance texts. He was also the first Christian scholar to use Kabbalistic doctrine in support of Christian theology.

Bartolomeu Dias Sailed around the Cap Of Good Hope


Gave India Trade To the Portuguese

Vasco De Gama Reaches The Coast Of India


For Trade And New Opportunity

Raphael's School Of Athens


Features Cicero And Aristotle As Well As Perspective And Greco-Roman Ideals

Michelangelo paints roof of sistine chapel


sack of rome


The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It ended the Italian Renaissance.

Baroque art style

1600 - 1750

The Baroque style is characterized by exaggerated motion and clear detail used to produce drama, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. ... Famous painters of the Baroque era include Rubens, Caravaggio, and Rembrandt.


1606 - 1669

One of the most influential Northern Renaissance artist. Famous for being father of the Baroque art style that dominated Europe at that time.

Reformation/ Wars on Religion


1466 - 1536

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam was one of Europe's most famous and influential scholars. A man of great intellect who rose from meager beginnings to become one of Europe's greatest thinkers, he defined the humanist movement in Northern Europe. Famous for writting "In praise of folly".

ferdinand and isabella

1474 - 1516

The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Sir Thomas More, venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist. Right wing of King Henry VIII and was executed for not supporting the English reformation.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money, proposing an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517.

John calvin

1509 - 1564

John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Henry wanted more power over the Churches in his jurisdiction after his was denied his request for a divorce in order to try again to produce a male heir, and was enticed by the prospect of the economic opportunities that would arise were he to have full control of the Church in England. He imposed the act of Succession and the act of Supremacy.

In praise of folly (erasmus)


Machiavelli writes The Prince


the ideal ruler

diet of worms


The Diet of Worms 1521 was an imperial diet of the Holy Roman Empire held at the Heylshof Garden in Worms, then an Imperial Free City of the Empire. An imperial diet was a formal deliberative assembly of the whole Empire. This one is most memorable for the Edict of Worms, which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation. It was conducted from 28 January to 25 May 1521, with the Emperor Charles V presiding.

peasants revolt


The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (German: Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe from 1524 to 1525. caused by luthern ideas.

Act of supremacy


Act of Supremacy, (1534) English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as the “Supreme Head of the Church of England.” The act also required an oath of loyalty from English subjects that recognized his marriage to Anne Boleyn.

council of trent

1545 - 1563

Council Of Trent Meets And Makes the Counter-Reformation And Assures Catholic Dogmas

Philip II


Philip II comes to rule Spain

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

Bloody Mary. Catholic ruler of the tutor dynasty, she executed protestants in England and went against the Anglican church.

peace of augsburg


Augsburg, Peace of, 1555, temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation. Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era. The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when the government was ramshackle and limited, and when monarchs in neighboring countries faced internal problems that jeopardized their thrones.

french wars of religion

1562 - 1596

Huguenots Becoming Powerful And Causing Problems

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

King Charles IX of France, under the sway of his mother, Catherine de Medici, orders the assassination of Huguenot Protestant leaders in Paris, setting off an orgy of killing that results in the massacre of tens of thousands of Huguenots all across France. Two days earlier, Catherine had ordered the murder of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, a Huguenot leader whom she felt was leading her son into war with Spain.

dutch revolt

1584 - 1609

Dutch Revolt Where William Of Orange Sends 17 Provinces To Fight Spain - 10 Became Spanish Netherlands- 7 Were Independent

Elizabeth I conquers the Spanish armada


Elizabeth Beats The Spanish Armada From Philip II - Decline Of Spain's Golden Age

war of three henry's


Henry of Navarre


Paris is worth a mass, and converts to catholicism.

edict of nantes


gives religious toleration in france

30 years war

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history. It was the deadliest European religious war, resulting in eight million casualties.

peace of Westphalia


Peace of Westphalia, European settlements of 1648, which brought to an end the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch and the German phase of the Thirty Years' War. The peace was negotiated, from 1644, in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück. The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, 1648. End War, France Is A Power, Calvinism Is Accepted, Holy Roman Empire Loses Power, Independence Of Netherlands, Prussia emerges As A Power (Germany, Brandenburg)

End of reformation


Scientific Revolution

galileo galilei

1564 - 1642

Galileo Galilei was an Italian polymath: astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician, he played a major role in the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. Physically Proved That The Earth Is Not The Center Of The Universe With His Telescope And Viewing The Moons Of Jupiter And Also Made The Law Of Inertia About How Objects Of Different Weights Fall At The Same Rate


1571 - 1630

Kepler Discovers The Law Of Equal Areas, Planets Are Being Pulled In From The Sun Into Their Place, And The Law Of Ellipses On Planetary Motion On How Planets More In Ellipses, Furthering Copernicus’ Theory Thanks To Brahe’s Collection Of Data (Although he did not Support Copernicus)

william harvey

1578 - 1657

William Harvey was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology. He was the first known to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation

francis bacon, rene decartes and the scintific methoth

1610 - 1625

Bacon Created The Inductive Method Of The Scientific Method Where Empiricism Or Concrete Data Like Facts Are Important Because you need to be able To Explain Why, all Through Observation And Experiments

Galileo publishes Letters on Sunspots


Harvey announces his discovery of the circulatory system


Kepler reveals his third and final law about planetary motion


isaac newton

1643 - 1727

Sir Isaac Newton FRS was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.


James I

1603 - 1625

James I Stuart Becomes King Of England

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Charles I Becomes King Of England - Hated Parliament And Disobeyed Protestant Ideals Even Tho He Was One

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV Becomes King Of France As A Child With Cardinal Mazarin As His Minister - Scared By The Fronde And Pleads To Be A Powerful King. He calls himself the sun king.Most successful absolute ruler in Europe

Oliver Cromwell

1649 - 1658

Charles I is Beheaded


Marked the end of the English Civil war, also depicted the start of Cromwell's ruling.

the fronde

1649 - 1652

The Fronde Rebellion- Makes Louis Want To be More Powerful, Nobles Of The Robe And Intendant System To Lessen Nobility

Leviathan (Hobbes)


Leviathan- Hobbes- As A Result Of Chaotic English Civil War Where He States That The Best Government Is Untouched And Has A Strong And Firm Leader Since People Are Naturally Poor And Brutish And Their Human Nature Is Terrible So They Require Guidance And Protection

Cromwell Becomes Dictator Of England


Appoints Protestant To Parliament And Becomes A Protectorate

Cromwell dies


peter the great

1682 - 1725

Peter The Great Ruled Russia- Warm Water Ports (Azof Campaign, Building Navy, European Tour) Westernization (Beard Tax, Protestant Toleration, Patriarchal-- Synod, European Tour)

Edict of Fontainebleau


Edict Of Fontainebleau Overturning The Edict Of Nantes



Isaac Newton Writes Principia Which Is One Of The Greatest Scientific Books Ever Written On The Natural Laws Of Motion And Gravity But Most Importantly Sets Up The Enlightenment By Saying That Everything In The Universe Can Be Mathematically Proved So Things Are Unchangeable And Predictable Also Created Deism Where God Is The Clockmaker And Simply Created The World So God Does Not Have Active Participation So Things Can Be Explained And Predicted By Sciences And Reason Rather Than Godly Forces

English Bill of Rights


English Bill Of Rights- Right To A Fair And Speedy Trial, Consent By Parliament, Right Of Speech, No Cruel Or Unfair Punishment

two treatises of Government


Two Treatise Of Government- John Locke From Glorious Revolution And It Stated Government Is Only Here To Protect Our Natural Rights Such As Life Liberty And Property Bc Of The State Of Nature (We Can't Protect Ourselves And Are Born Too Pure ) And Also Discussed The Social Contract Where People Agree To Obey The Government In Return For Protection And A Majority Say Is Important If Not Upheld People Have The Right To Rebel (Constitutionalism)

streltsy rebellion


Streltsy Rebellion- Tried To Overthrow Him And His Western Way But Caused Peter To Make The 14 Ranks And He Condemned Many People To Death

pugachev's rebellion


Pugachev Rebellion Where The Landlords Were Murdered All Over Southwest Russia Bc Of The Serf Uprising Bc They Felt They Were Treated Unfairly And Resulting In Catherine Allowing Nobility Absolute Control Over Them



1596 - 1650

Descartes Is Born And Made The Idea Of Cogito Ergo Sum Which Is I Think Therefore I Am was His Proof Depended On Deductive Reasoning And Logic And Also Created Cartesian Dualism Which Divided All Existence Into Spiritual And Material Thinks So Things Could Be Tested Instead Of Believed


1670 - 1700

age of reason

war of spanish succession

1701 - 1714

War Of Spanish Succession- Louis Is Defeated By Grand Alliance because They Didn't Want Him Taking The French And Spanish Throne

pragmatic sanction


Pragmatic Sanction Was Made By Charles VI in the Holy Roman Empire With No Male Heir To The Throne So He Tried To Ensure That His Daughter Maria Teresa Would Take The Thrown (Weird In Austria And Catholicism At The Time)

Catherine the great

1729 - 1796

Catherine The Great Comes To Power And Assassinated Her Husband And Funds Diderot's Library And Works W Nobility And Hurts Serfs (Pugachev Rebellion Where In The End She Declared That Nobility Has Full Control Over Their Serfs)
very fond of the enlightenment and believed herself to be part of the movement.

Prussia becomes despotism


Prussia Becomes Enlightened Despotism W King Frederick II Or Frederick The Great Who Makes Public School Education, Military State, Religious Toleration, Regarded And Helped Nobles (Making Them Service Nobles) And Weakened The Church By Religious Toleration

frederick the great

1740 - 1786

Prussia Becomes Enlightened Despotism W King Frederick II Or Frederick The Great Who Makes Public School Education, Military State, Religious Toleration, Regarded And Helped Nobles (Making Them Service Nobles) And Weakened The Church By Religious Toleration

seven years war

1756 - 1763

Seven Years War Begins (Called French And Indian War In American For Dominance And Luxury Goods Resulting In The French Losing And Britain Winning Colonial Power) But In Europe, Maria Teresa Builds Up An Army And Wants Her Entire Areas Back From Prussia So They Get Russia And France To Conquer It And Divide Its Territories Amongst The Winners And Was One Of The Bloodiest Wars In Europe Since 30 Years War - Ended In Treaty Of Paris

the social contract


Social Contract- Rousseau Where He Described That Society Ruins An Individual And We Should All Try To Get Back To A Natural State Where God Produced The Earth And No One Owns It And Says Private Property Is What Corrupts Society Bc It Requires A Government To Come And Take Control Over Protection-- Man Is Born Free But Everywhere Else He Is In Chains Also General Will Is Important

Joseph II of Austria

1765 - 1790

Most enlightened but least effective. Famous for daring reforms on religion allowing freedom of religion, great educational reforms and economical reforms during his rule. he even came to abolish serfdom. did not like the nobility.

wealth of nations


Wealth Of Nations Adam Smith - Outlined Supply And Demands In A Capitalistic Society W Competition To Ensure Balance And Thought Free Trade Would Limit Government To Do Its Civil Duties

treaty of paris


ended the seven years war. The Treaty of Paris of 1783, negotiated between the United States and Great Britain, ended the revolutionary war and recognized American independence. The Continental Congress named a five-member commission to negotiate a treaty–John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, and Henry Laurens.

French Revolution

Louis XVI becomes king

1774 - 1792

King Louis XVI Becomes King - The Old Regime Of Lavishness And The Estates General And Poverty And Debt But Had Large Culture And Dominance And Good Exports

what is the third estate?


Abbe Sieyes A Member Of Clergy Wrote What Is The Third Estate About The Third Estate Saying How There Should B More Attention To Third Estate And Tried To Overthrow Nobility And Touched Upon Social Contract-- Got Everyone Fired Up

national assembly


Third Estate Broke Into The National Assembly And Went Into The Tennis Court Where The Tennis Court Oath Was And Vowed To Not Break Up Until They Get A Constitutional Monarchy And Got A New Constitution // Even Some Of The First And Second Estate Came And Resulted In Jacques Necker Being Fired Which Made People Angry

the great fear


The Great Fear Where In The Countryside, There Was A Grain Shortage That The Peasants That Was An Aristocratic Plot Even Tho It Wasnt// National Assembly Responded W The Decree Of August 4th

women's march to versailles


Women's March To Versailles- Angry About Bread Shortages And No Food And Was About 7000 Women And Marat Encouraged Them And Broke Into Versailles And Said That If U Dont Go To The Tuileries Palace In Paris Then We Will Kill You So They Left And The King And Queen Became Political Prisoners And Made A Good Price On Bread

the estates general summoned

may 5th 1789

May 5th, The Estates General Meets In Versailles -- First Estate- Clergy 1%, Second Estate- Nobility 2-4%, Third Estate - Middle Class And Peasants 95% And Held The Heavy Tax Burden (Old Regime) And Now In This Particular Meeting Everyone Was Happy The Estates General Was Meeting Bc It Was The First Time In 150 And Discussed - Constitutional Monarchy, Position Of Clergy, Improving Economy, Bill Of Rights, And How The Estates Would Vote Where's Jacques Necker Sympathized And Said To Double Representatives,but Kept Votes The Same Which Helped No One -- Resulted In The Third Estate Getting Shut Out

storming of the bastille

july 14, 1789

Bastille Day- The Storming Of The Bastille By Hungry Peasants In Paris And That Fortress Symbolized Royal Injustice Which Is The First Success By Revolutionaries And Saved The Nation Assembly Bc The King Was About To Send Troops And Brick By Brick The Bastille Was Torn Down

Decree Of August 4th

august 4th 1789

Decree Of August 4th- National Assembly Responded To The Great Fear Which Abolished Feudal System (Nobility Special Privileges), Tax Exemptions, And Wanted People To Stop Rioting And Completely Got Rid Of The Estate System

civil constitution of the clergy


Civil Constitution Of Clergy- Tried To Turn Religion Secular And Take Power From Clergy By Having Clergymen Be Elected By State And Forbidden To Have Authority From The Pope And Got Back Lands And Tried To Pay National Debt By Parisians Worried That They Were Messing W Catholicism And Was The Biggest Mistake The Assembly Made

National Assembly Turns Into An Elected Legislative Assembly


National Assembly Turns Into An Elected Legislative Assembly W A King Chief Executive Officer W The Signing Of The French Constitution W Maximilien Robespierre Who Was The Leader Of The Jacobins And George Danton Leader Of The Gordon And Focused On More Radical Things And Actually Made Harsh Decisions

Flight To Varennes

june 21st 1791

Flight To Varennes- When The King And Queen Try To Flee To Austria By Dressing Up As Peasants But Are Stopped And Taken As Prisoner

age of rousseau


Age Of Rousseau- Radical Stage Of French Rev

national convention


Legislative Assembly Turns Into National Convention And France Is Proclaimed A Republic Based Off The Ideals Of Equality, Liberty, And Fraternity

Legislative Assembly Declares War On Austria


international wars begin

reign of terror begins


King is executed


The King Is Executed For Treason And Alliance W Austria (Jacobins Did Not Want To Bc They Are More For Revolution In Politics But Girondins Wanted It Bc They Are More Radical Warlike Revolution) First King To Be Killed In France And Robespierre Becomes Dictator

committee of public safety

april 1793

National Convention Makes A 12-man Dictatorial Committee Of Public Safety And Was Like A Secret Police And Launches A Reign Of Terror To Scare France Into Going W The Revolution And Almost 75% Of Working Class Are Guillotined And Pierre Ensured The Revolution By Using Terror

cult of supreme being


Cult Of The Supreme Being- Pierre Declares A New Holiday Where There's A “god” (Because He Believes People Need A Higher Order To Believe In) Called A Supreme Being And They All Gather In Cloaks And Worship And Pierre Leads In And This Is Where People Start To Believe He's Actually Insane

the directory


The Directory- 5 Member Executive Established By The National Convention To Run The Government And Was Stupid And Weak And Unorganized And Shook


coup d'etat


Napoleon And The Consulate- Paris Mobs Threatened The New Government And Young General Napoleon Bonaparte Took Down The Riot And Was Rewarded W Leading The French Armies Against Australian And Had Many Many Successful Victories So He Overthrew The Directory And Formed A New Government Called The Consulate Made Up Of Three Consuls W Napoleon As The Head Consul

concordat 1801


Concordat Of 1801- Papacy Renounced Claims Over Church Property And Napoleon Was Allowed To Nominate Bishops Reinstituted Church And State And There Was Toleration But Catholicism Was (Catholicism Was Weakened Due To No Tithe Or Land)

napoleon crowns himself


crowns himself emperor

Battle Of Austerlitz


Battle Of Austerlitz:battle Of Three Empires: Napoleon Fights The Russia And Austria Bc They Don't Want Him To Gain Dominance - Resulted In A Peace Treaty In The Continental System (An Economic War) Which Is A Trade Embargo Against Britain Because Napoleon Feared that the British would disrupt The Balance Of Power France Had

napoleon invades russia


Napoleon Invades Russia since They Backed Out Of The Continental System To Side With Britain (Wanted To Trade W Them) And the Russian Winter Murdered most of Napoleon’s Men Which Diminished Napoleon's Image (Lost 500,000 Of His 600,000 Men)

Battle Of Leipzig


Battle Of Leipzig (Battle Of Nations) Where Napoleon Fights Russia Prussia And Austria, Napoleon Is Exiled To Elba, Bourbons Were Restored To The Throne Of France To Louis XVIII (He Created A Legislative That Represented Only Upper Class)

Concert Of Europe


the Concert Of Europe- Quadruple Alliance- Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, And Austria In Order To Maintain The Barriers Made By Congress Of Vienna And Tried To Stop The Spread Of Revolutionary Ideas Such As The Spread Of Republicanism And Formed The Holy Alliance In Order To Prevent The Dual Economic And Political Revolutions From Occurring And Pledges To Send Armies To Any Areas W Intent To Destroy Monarchies



Battle Of Waterloo - Last Napoleon battle. Napoleon decides to attack the Prussians first, defeat them and them turn their attention to the British. Napoleon fights the Prussians and damage them but don't win. Napoleon Start marching to attack the British, but they start retreating and Napoleon goes after them and was stopped by a very big thunderstorm which gave time for the prussians to go around and meet the British. The British took their position near the village of waterloo and the battle begun. The Dutch of Wellington had studied napoleonic warfare so he didn't played Napoleon game. The battle was not going very good for Napoleon and he learned that the Prussians were arriving, but Napoleon still had the old guard (undefeated elite french army) so he thought that he could hold the Prussians long enough for the old guard to attack in the center of the British army, but he was wrong. Wellington ordered for most of his troops to hide under the riverbank and when the old guard was approaching he ordered all of them to stand up and fire at once, the surprise was devastating and the guard retreated compromising the whole army and NApoleon decided to go back to Paris.

100 days

March 19 1815 - July 15 1815

The Hundred Days- Napoleon Escapes From Elba And Makes It To South France With A Small Army Behind Him. All of the soldiers that are sent to capture him allied with Napoleon again, they marched to Paris (The Famous Walk On The Bridge). Napoleon tried to make peace with Prussia and British but they didn't accept. Prussia and Britain (under the command of Dutch of Wellington) are preparing for the invasion, so Napoleon raises an army of 120000 man.

napoleon dies


Napoleon Dies In St Helena - He Was Very Egotistical And Large Headed And Went To War W Everyone Bc He Wanted To Flourish And Didn't Give Equal Rights To Women