Epilepsy timeline

Events

First Epilepsy book

400 B.C.

The greek physician Hippocrates writes the first book on epilepsy, titled On the Sacred Disease

Jesus Crist

70 A.D.

In the gospel according to Mark ():14-29), Jesus Christ casts out a devil from a young man with epilepsy

A handbook on witch-hunting

1494

A handbook on witch-hunting, Malleus Maleficarum, brings a wave of persecution and torture, leading to the death of more than 200,000 women.

The modern medical era of epilepsy begins

1859 - 1906

Under the leadership of three English neurologists - J. Hughlings Jackson, R. Reynolds, and Sir W. R. Gowers - the modern medical era of epilepsy begins. In a study, Jackson defines a seizure as "an occasional, an excessive, and a disorderly discharge of nerve tissue on muscles."

The term "epileptologist"

1904

The term "epileptologist" was first used to describe a person who specializes in epilepsy.

Discovery of EEG

1929

A German psychiatrist named Hans Berger announced to the world that it was possible to record electric currents generated on the brain. Berger named it as the electroencephalogram (EEG).

The Epilepsy Foundation

1968

The Epilepsy Foundation of America is founded, the only such organization wholly dedicated to the welfare of people with epilepsy. It is now known as the Epilepsy Foundation.

Establishing epilepsy centers

1970

The Veterans Administration spearheads a movement toward establishing epilepsy centers, launching a new breed of neurologists who began to specialize in the treatment and research of epilepsy.

Laws forbidding people with epilepsy to marry or become parents

1990

Even in the twentieth century, some U.S. states had laws forbidding people with epilepsy to marry or become parents, and some states permitted sterilization.

A landmark conference "Curing Epilepsy: The Promise and the Challenge"

2000

A landmark conference, "Curing Epilepsy: The Promise and the Challenge," organized by the Epilepsy Foundation of America, sets bold goals for tomorrow's treatment including prevention and cure of epilepsy; no seizures or side effects for those with the condition; and finding ways to prevent epilepsy acquired from injury, infection, or errors of development.

ANTI EPILEPTIC DRUGS

Phenobarbital (under name of Luminal)

1912

Two independent teams of chemists created phenobarbital under the name of Luminal. Phenobarbital is the oldest AED in common clinical use.

Phenytoin (PHT)

1939

Discovery and clinical testing of phenytoin (PHT) by Merritt and Putnam introduced both a major new non-sedating AED and an animal model of epilepsy.

Carbamazepine (CBZ)

1953

Carbamazepine (CBZ) was synthesized by Schindler at Geigy. Over the years, CBZ has gained acceptance as a first-line treatment for partial and tonic-clonic seizures.

Ethosuximide (ESM)

1958

Ethosuximide (ESM) was introduced as an AED and has been the drug of choice for children with absence seizures who do not also have tonic-clonic or myoclonic seizures. ESM is also effective for atypical absence seizures.

Soduium Valproate (VPA)

1963

Soduium Valproate (VPA) anticonvulsant property was recognized. VPA is effective over the complete range of seizures.

Felbatol (felbamate) and Neurontin (gabapentin)

1993

Felbatol (felbamate) and Neurontin (gabapentin) are FDA approved.

Lamictal (lamotrigine)

1994

Lamictal (lamotrigine) is FDA approved.

Topamax (topiramate)

1996

Topamax (topiramate) is FDA approved.

Gabitril (tiagabine)

1997

Gabitril (tiagabine) is FDA approved.

Keppra (levetiracetam)

1999

Keppra (levetiracetam) is FDA approved.

Trileptal (oxcarbazepine) and Zonegran

2000

Trileptal (oxcarbazepine) and Zonegran are FDA approved.

OTHER TREATMENTS OF EPILEPSY

The ketogenic diet

1920

The ketogenic diet (high in fat, low in protein, and has negligible amounts of carbohydrate) is one of the oldest forms of treatment for epilepsy.

Vagus nerve stimulation

1997

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved vagus nerve stimulation in combination with seizure medication for partial epilepsy in adults.