Pre-Socratic philosophers rejected the traditional mytological explanations that try to explian the natural phenomenas or something that they didn't understand using gods. The Pre-socratics were in favor of more rational explanations.
Socrates, who marks a watershed in ancient Greek philosophy, used the dialogue to approach to the reality.
In this philosophy the main concerns were ethical issues and knowledge problems. This stage is after Plato and Aristotle.
We can define it as the process of rediscovering the ancient cultutre developed en Greece and Rome in the classical period, and parttly by the need to address theological problems and integrate sacred doctrine with secular learning.
It's the passage from medieval philosophy to humanism. Humanism, politics, astronomy and maths are the clue during this period.
After 15 years of philosophizing about theological issues, we seek to know the created world. They started thinking the thought of the world.
Here appears the "Rationalists" (Descartes) argued all knowledge must begin from certain 'innate ideas' in the mind; and the "Empiricists" (Berkeley) held that knowledge must begin with sensory experience.
Immanuel Kant claimed to bring unity to rationalism and empiricism setting a groundbreaking philosophical system.
Key ideas that sparked changes in philosophy were the fast progress of science, evolution and a emergent order such a free market.
Very influential currents such as German Idealism, Utilitarianism, Marxism, Existentialism, Positivism and Pragmatism.
Saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools- including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism and poststructuralism.
Philosophy incresingly became professionalizated.
Is divided into analytical philosophy and continental philosophy.