Multiculturalism in Australia


Aboriginals come in contact with Captain Cook and his crew.


First Fleet


Conflict & Colonisation


Van Dieman's Land


Settlers in Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania) are authorised to shoot Aboriginal people.

School For Aboriginal Children


Governor Macquarie establishes the 'Native Institution' - a school for Aboriginal children at Parramatta. The school closes in 1820 when families withdraw their children.

Many religions were introduced into Australia


Conflict & killing of Aboriginal people, Bathurst


Conflict between European settlers and Aboriginal people escalates. Over 100 Aboriginal people are killed in massacre at Bathurst, New South Wales and martial law is declared.

Canadian exiles


Canadian exiles are transported to New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania) for their part in rebellions of 1837 - 1838.First full-time ethnic schools in Australia are established by German settlers in South Australia.

Chinese, Italian, Greek, German migration


Chinese, Italian and Greek migration begins. German missionaries arrive in South Australia.

Spanish missionaries


Spanish Benedictines found New Norcia Mission in Western Australia.

Pacific Islanders


Pacific Islanders are brought to New South Wales to work mainly as shepherds.

Chinese labourers


Chinese, Italian and Greek migration begins. German missionaries arrive in South Australia.

Gold Rush in Victoria


Gold rushes in Victoria and New South Wales lead to large population increases with people coming from many countries, particularly China.
Migrants from many parts of Europe and Asia also begin to arrive as labourers. There is large scale Irish immigration in response to potato famine in Ireland.
Chinese people begin to migrate within Australia, not only to work in the gold fields but also to look for work in Queensland and the Northern Territory.First convicts arrive in Western Australia.

European & Asian migration, 'Afghan' cameleers, South Sea Islanders


Migrants from many parts of Europe and Asia, including Poland, India, Iran, Egypt and Turkey continue to arrive as labourers. Large scale Irish immigration continues.

Irish immigrants


Arrivals from Ireland peak at 200,000. Up to World War 1 the Irish, after the English, form the second largest component of immigrant community. They have a minority status as Catholics in a predominantly Protestant society.

Chinese passengers Stopped


Chinese passengers are prevented from disembarking in Victoria and New South Wales.

Immigration numbers reduced


Depression in eastern colonies reduces immigration to very low numbers.

Child Emigration Society


Kingsley Fairbridge establishes the Child Emigration Society in England and a farm school in Western Australia for orphaned and underprivileged child migrants.

Increased immigration


There is a sharp rise in immigration, particularly from Italy, due to USA restricting immigration from southern and eastern Europe.

Immigration Act amended


immigration Act is amended to allow government to exclude or restrict non-British immigrants for economic, industrial or racial reasons.

Immigration Reform Group


Immigration Reform Group is founded, advocating ending the White Australia Policy.Australian citizens are permitted to bring non-European spouses and unmarried minor children into Australia; this is extended to all British subjects in 1960. 'Distinguished and highly qualified' non-Europeans are admitted for permanent residence.