In response to warming climates at the end of the last Ice Age, from about 10,000 years ago, some groups adapted to the environment in new ways, while others remained hunter-foragers. Settled agriculture appeared in several different parts of the world. The switch to agriculture created a more reliable, but not necessarily more diversified, food supply. Agriculturalists also had a massive impact on the environment through intensive cultivation of selected plants to the exclusion of others, through the construction of irrigation systems, and through the use of domesticated animals for food and for labor. Populations increased; family groups gave way to village life and, later, to urban life with all its complexity. Patriarchy and forced labor systems developed, giving elite men concentrated power over most of the other people in their societies. Pastoralism emerged in arts of Africa and Eurasia. Pastoral peoples domesticated animals and led their herds around grazing ranges. Like agriculturalists, pastoralists tended to be more socially stratified than hunter-foragers. Because pastoralists were mobile, they rarely accumulated large amounts of material possessions, which would have been a hindrance when they changed grazing areas. The pastoralists’ mobility allowed them to become an important conduit for technological change as they interacted with settled populations.
Buddhism started around 563 B.C.E and is still going on now in 2016. Buddhism had core beliefs about desire, suffering, and the searching for enlightment preached by Buddha changed over time as it was being spread.
Christianity is the biggest religion in the world. Christianity, based on core beliefs about the teachings and divinity of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded by his disciples, drew on Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic influences. Despite initial Roman imperial hostility, Christianity spread through the efforts of missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support by the time of Emperor Constantine.
Diasporic communities were set up along important trade routes, so that they may introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture. An example is Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region, and Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia.
The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and free and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples.
American colonial subjects led to a series of rebellions, that facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States. Revolutionary movements also started up and they include the American revolution, and the Latin American independence movements, as well as French subjects rebelling against their monarchy.
As states industrialized, they also expanded their overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. The result of this led to regional warfare and diplomacy
In industrialized states workers organized themselves so that they could improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed visions of society, including marxism
Nationalist leaders and parties in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule, leaders and parties include the Indian national congress, Ho Chi Minn in French Indochina(Vietnam), and Kwame Nkrumah in British Gold Coast(Ghana)
Transnational movements such as communism, Pan-Arab-ism, and Pan African-ism sought to unite people across national boundaries. These movements challenged racial ideologies because the people supporting the movements want to unite people across national borders, which means they were either separated or they are not the same race as the people across the borders.
Rapid advances in science altered the understanding of the universe and the natural world and led to the development of new technologies. These changes enabled unprecedented population growth, which altered how humans interacted with the environment and threatened delicate ecological balances at local, regional, and global levels.
At the beginning of the 20th century a global political order run by the European existed, it included the United States, Russia, and Japan. As time passed by people and states challenged this order so that they could redistribute power within the existing order and to restructure empires. There were also people/states that tried to overturn the order, that led to major conflict with high human casualties.Older, land based empires collapsed due to internal and external factors, which included political and social discontent, technological and economic stagnation, and military defeat. Some colonies negotiated their independence, while others achieved independence through armed struggle.
The twentieth century witnessed a great deal of warfare and the collapse of the global economy in the 1930s. In response to these challenges, the role of state in the domestic economy fluctuated, and new institutions of global governance emerged and continued to develop throughout the century. Scientific breakthroughs, new technologies, increasing levels of integration, changing relationships between humans and the environment, and the frequency of political conflict all contributed to global developments in which people crafted new understandings of society, culture, and historical interpretations. These new understandings often manifested themselves in, and were reinforced by, new forms of cultural production. Institutions of global governance both shaped and adapted to these social conditions.
There were many different causes for global conflict, some of those things are imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan, competition over resources, and economic crisis endangered by the great depression. A great example of global conflict is world war 2. World war 2 was mostly caused because of Nazi ideologies, and the hatred of the treaty signed in world war 1 and the lust for power from Hitler and his followers was a main reason for the start of world war 2.