History of Statistics - Timeline

Philosophers have ideas with no quantitative analyses

Blaise Pascal corresponded with Pierre de Fermat studied mathematics of probability through games of chance, gambling

William Petty and John Graunt developed the use of simple averages. Applied the idea of estimation to develop quantitative data in the place of a census. 1st demographic studies

Jacob Bernoulli published papers on probability in 1685; first major treatise in the field of probability and statistics published in 1713

DeMoivre- Approximatio; Law of errors (similar to standard deviation), first statement of the formula for the normal distribution curve

astronomy used probability models and statistical theories. Quetelet, the astronomer who first applied statistical analyses to human biology

least square method by Legendre and Gaus and normal curve, regression through study of astronomy

F. Galton regression to the mean, correlation and the use of questionnaires and surveys

Karl Pearson continuous curves, studied natural selection using correlation, formed first academic department of statistics, Biometrika journal, helped develop the Chi Square analysis

Spearman a psychologist who developed a non-parametric equivalent of the correlation coefficient

W.S. Gossett a student who studied process of brewing, alerted the statistics community about problems with small sample sizes and the probable error of the mean the t-test

R.A. Fisher began developing methods appropriate for small samples, evolutionary biologists - developed ANOVA and stressed the importance of experimental design

Statistics began to take on more application approach

Abraham Wald showed a new way to look at statistics

John Tukey statistician who developed multiple comparisons procedure and introduces stemplot and on 1977 the boxplot