World War I Timeline

Events

Triple Alliance

May 20th 1882 - June 1914

The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy who eventually is replaced by the Ottoman Empire

Triple Entente

1884 - 1915

The Triple Entente consisted of Britain, France, and Russia, who later goes to Serbia's aid due to a treaty.

War Measures Act

August 22 1914 - 1915

-Federal statue adopted by parliament after beginning of WWI.
-Gave broad powers to Canadian government to keep up security measures during the war
-Very controversial.
-Used to imprison Canadians of Ukrainian, German, and Slavic descent.
-Would be upsetting to many Canadians of that descent because they were seen as war threats.

Second Battle of Ypres

April 22nd 1915 - May 25th 1915

-Chlorine gas was a major weapon used against allied troops.
-Fired more than 150 tons of mustard gas.
-German's first, and only offensive of that year.

Battle of Somme

July 1st 1916 - November 18th 1916

-During the first day of battle record breaking numbers of soldiers died.
-First battle where tanks were introduced as well as major use of air support
-Five month long stalemate to gain only 5 miles of land fro Britain and France

Conscription Crisis

1917

-When Prime Minister Borden realized how many men were needed to fight he went back on his promise of no conscription by introducing the "Military Service Act." This bill would then make enlistment compulsory. It did however have exemptions for the disabled, the clergy, this with specials skills. and conscientious objectors.
-There was major backlash from French Canadian who felt as though this war wasn't theirs. There were little english speaking french troops, along with few french speaking officer crops.
-As well as the french many farmers who needed theirs sons to work for them.

Suffragists

Approx. 1917

-Women given the right to vote.
-Women's work became more public.
-needed women's votes because all the men were at war ( mothers and wives of the soldiers)

American Declaration of War

April 6th 1917

-Americans entered the war in 1917
-Angered by sinking of passenger ships (Lusitania)
-Germans promised and encouraged Mexicos invasion of the US

Vimy Ridge

April 9 1917 - April 12 1917

-First time that all 4 Canadian Corps fought together.
-Meticulously planned and executed.
-The creeping barrage was used to advance.
-2 main hills were captured on the first day --> hill 145, and the pimple
-" The birth of a Nation" - gave Canada "status" as a big force.

Active war:
CEF ( Canadian Expeditionary Force) fought independently as canada
Fought in ypres, somme, but truly proved independence and military force at Vimy ridge. → They captured what Britain and America
Mentioned in us papers

-2 main hills were captured on the first day --> hill 145, and the pimple
-" The birth of a Nation" - gave Canada "status" as a big force.

Passchendaele

July 31st 1917 - November 10th 1917

Canada joined the battle 3 months later than other troops
British army and their allies (Canada) captured Passchendaele , only to be abandoned a year later
One of the largest casualty counts than any other battle. British leader had no regard for human life. - win war at any cost
One of the lengthiest battles

Military Voters Act

August 1917

Halifax Explosion

December 6, 1917

The Mont Blanc cargo was carrying 2300 tons of picric acid, 200 tons of tnt, 35 tons of high octane gasoline, and 10 tons of gun cotton.
Mont Blanc collided with the Imo setting it ablaze.
The ships moved toward the peir setting it on fire.
within minutes the ships exploded, marking the 4th largest non- nuclear explosion to date.
2000 people died, 9000 were injured- 200 being blinded
house windows 50 miles (80km) were shattered.

Borden vs. Laurier Election

December 17th 1917

Borden elected Prime Minister

Spanish Influenza

1918 - 1919

Killed more people than WWI
Most devastating influenza to date
Infected an estimated 500 million people worldwide
Killed approximately 20-50 million people.
Affected people mainly between the ages 20-40.

Armistice

November 11, 1918

The agreement between the Germans and the allies to end the fight

Paris Peace Conference

January 18th 1919 - January 21st 1920

-Borden fought for Canada to have its own seat at the Paris Peace Conference and not just be represented by Britain.
-Also insisted that he be among the leaders who signed the Treaty of Versailles.

Treaty of Versailles

June 28th 1919

-The signed agreement that stated the war was Germany's fault
-Territorial, Military, Financial & Economic

Territorial
-Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
-Germany were forbidden to unite with Austria
-East Prussia was isolated from Germany
-The SAAR with rich coal fields was given to France for 15 years
-All Germany’’s were divided and given to Britain and France

Military
-Germany’s army restricted to 100,000 men, 6 battleships, no submarines, and no air force
-The Rhineland was demilitarized

Financial & Economic
-Given 132 billion gold marks.

League of Nations

January 10th 1920 - April 20th 1946

-Created during the Treaty of Versailles
Good idea → never reached its potential
-Woodrow Wilson had the idea
physically too sick to see it through
-Use money the money to stop agressions.