Fall of the Roman Empire into the Middle Ages


Servius Tullius, sixth king of Rome

573 BC. - 534 BC.

fortifies city and establishes class system based on property

Tarentum, subdued by Rome

450 BC.

important Greek trading city in Italy

Rome conquers northern Italy

222 BC.

including Mediolanum (Milan)

Rome appoints Quintus Fabius Maximus dictator

217 BC.

Romans defeated at Cannae

216 BC.

with 50,000 killed

Romans under Marcus Claudius

212 BC.

Marcellus conquer and sack Syracuse

Second Macedonian War

200 BC. - 197 BC.

Romans under Flamius defeat Philip V of Macedon ay Cynoscephelae at 197 BC.

War between Sparta and Rome

192 BC.

Roman army defeated by Perseus

172 BC.

War between Rome and Macedon

172 BC. - 168 BC.

Perseus defeated by Romans at Pydna

168 BC.

Macedon placed under Roman governor; beginning of Roman World domination

Third Punic war

149 BC. - 146 BC.

Roman forces destroy Corinth- 147; Romans destroy Carthage: of 500,000 inhabitants only 50,000 remain alive; sold into slavery

War between Sparta and Achaea

147 BC.

Greece comes under Roman control

147 BC.

Roman Empire consists of 7 provinces

146 BC.

Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica, the two spains, Gallia Transalpina, Africa, Macedonia

Asia Minor becomes 8th Roman province

133 BC.

Tiberius Gracchus, Roman reformer murdered

133 BC.

murdered at instigation of the senate- 133 (plans to distribute wealth from rich to poor)

Gaius Gracchus, brother of Tiberius, elected tribune

123 BC.

and plans wide reforms

Gaius Gracchus killed

121 BC.

killed in a riot, his reforms abolished – 121

War in Africa between Rome and Jugurtha, king of Numidia

112 BC. - 105 BC.

Marius assisted by Sulla, defeats Jugurtha

Revolt of slaves and gladiators under Spartacus

71 BC.

crushed by consuls Pompey and Crassus

Pompey enters Syria, complete conquest of Palestine

63 BC.

Palestine, part of Roman province of Syria

Pompey captures Jerusalem

63 BC

Roman colonies in Switzerland

60 BC.

Pompey becomes consul in Rome

52 BC

Rivalry between Pompey and Caesar for control of Rome

50 BC.

Caesar crosses Rubicon to start civil war

49 BC.

Pompey defeated by Caesar at Pharsalia

48 BC.

Caesar murdered by conspirators led by Brutus and Cassius Longinus

44 BC.

Gaius Julius Caesar dies

44 BC.

Battle of Actium

31 BC

Mark Antony and Cleopatra defeated by Octavian, and commit suicide; Egypt becomes Roman province

Octavian Augustus retitled and becomes virtual emperor

30 BC. - 14 AD.

Judaea annexed by Rome

6 BC.

Judaea Roman province

6 AD

Gaius Octavius (Augustus), dies

14 AD.

Tiberius deid; succeeded by Caligula

37 AD

Caligula assassinated by Praetorian guard , succeeded by Claudius

42 AD

Roman invasion of Britain

43 AD

Claudius poisoned by his wife Agrippina; succeeded by her son Nero

54 AD

Nero succeeded by Galba

68 AD - 69 AD

Nero commits suicide

68 AD


69 AD - 79 AD


69 AD


69 AD

Revolt of the Jews against Rome: Jerusalem captured and destroyed

70 AD

Titus emperor

79 AD - 81 AD

Domitian emperor

81 AD - 96 AD

Nerva emperor

96 AD - 98 AD

Trajan emperor

98 AD - 116 AD

Under him the Roman Empire reaches its greatest geographical extent

Emperor Hadrian

117 AD - 138 AD

Jewish rising under Bar Kokhba

122 AD - 135 AD

Antoninus Pius emperor

138 AD - 161 AD

Marcus Aurlelius emperor

161 Ad - 180 AD

Romans, defeated in Scotland, retire to Hadrian’s Wall

180 AD

Emperor Commodus murdered 192

192 AD

Emperor Septimius Severus

193 AD - 211 AD

Roman citizenship given to every freeborn subject in Empire

212 AD

Heliogabalus become emperor after the assassination of Caracella

218 AD - 222 AD

The goths invade Asia Minor and Balkan Peninsula


Emperor Alexander Severus

222 AD - 235 AD

Emperor Alexander murdered and succeeded by Maximinus

235 AD

Emperor Maximinus assassinated by his troops

238 AD

succeeded by Gordian I and II, Balbinus, Pupinenus, and Gordian III

Emperor Philip the Arabian

244 AD - 249 AD

Emperor Decius

249 AD - 251 AD

Emperor Gallus

251 AD - 253 AD

Emperor Valerian

253 AD - 260 AD

Goths, divided into Visigoths and Ostrogoths, invade Black Sea area

257 AD

Franks invade Spain 257, Alemanni and Suevi conquer Upper Italy

257 AD

Franks are defeated at Milan

258 AD

Valerian's son Gallienus

260 AD - 268 AD

The Goths sack Athens, Sparta and Corinth

268 AD

Emperor Claudius II

268 AD - 270 AD

Emperor Aurelian

270 AD - 275 AD

Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus

276 AD - 282 AD

Emperor Marcus Aurelius Carus

282 AD - 283 AD

Emperor Diocletian

284 AD - 305 AD

Partition of the Roman Empire into western and eastern empires

285 AD

The Romans take Armenia from the Persians

297 AD

Separate developments of the five German dukedoms: Saxons, Franks, Alemanni, Thuringians, and Goths

300 AD

Emperor Constantine Chlorus succeeded by his son Constantine the Great

306 AD

Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople

311 AD

Constantine reunites the two empires under Rome, and becomes sole emperor

324 AD

Constantine the Great dies and is succeeded by his three sons, Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans

337 AD

Constantine II killed in battle of Aquileia, fighting his brother Constans

340 AD

Rome Splits again into two empires, with Constans as Western and Constantius II as Eastern Emperor

340 AD

Persians regain Armenia from Rome

350 AD

The Huns invade Europe

360 AD

The Empire divided, Eastern half from Lower Danube to the Persian border under Valens; Western half from Caledonia to northwestern Africa under Valentinian I

364 AD

Picts and Scots driven out of Britain by Theodosius

370 AD

Emperor Valens defeated and killed by Visigoths at Adrianople in Thrace 378

378 AD

Emperor Theodosius I resettles Visigoths in the empire

382 AD

Emperor Magnus Maximus crosses Channel and conquers Gaul and Spain

383 AD

Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain

383 AD

Theodosius (last ruler of united Empire, succeeded by Honorius and Arcadius who re-divide the Empire

392 AD



last ruler of the united empire. East and west.

Divided Roman Empire


Theodosius's successors, Honorius and Arcadius divided empire

Alark invades Greece and plunders Athens and the Balkans 396-98

396 AD - 398 AD

Invasion of Goths, Vandals, Franks, Britons, and Saxons

400 AD - 500 AD

Warring factions fought to claim pieces of the crumbling empire

The sacking of Rome

410 AD

The Visigoths sacked Rome and destroyed the city. The Visigoths tried to negotiate a deal to obtain land outside of Rome but the Empire didn't want to share its land. Visigoths that lived inside of Rome were persecuted as well.

Roman legions withdraw


legions returned to protect Italy

The Vandals sack Rome


Vandals destroy Roman fleet off Cartagena


Emperor Severus

461 - 465


465 - 467


467 - 473


473 - 474

Julius Nepos

474 - 475

Romulus Augustulus Last Roman Emperor


Romulus Augustulus in the West is deposed

Clovis, King of the Franks


succeeded his father, Childeric I, at 15-years old

Clovis rules most of Norther Gaul


Franks convert to Christianity

496 AD

Clovis, the leader of the Franks, converts to Christianity to help legitimize his rise to power. Created an alliance with the Roman Catholic Church

Franks defeat Visigoths at battle of Vouille

507 AD

drive them out of Aquitane

Division of Frankish Kingdom

511 AD

Justinian I

527 - 565

Emperor of the great, Byzantine empire

Justinian Code

530 AD

Nike Revolt

532 AD

In Constantinople Nike Revolt threatens to overthrow Justinian

Eastern Roman Empire strikes back

533 AD

Emperor Justinian expands the military power of the Byzantine Empire in the East of Rome towards the chaos of the West.

Burgundian Kingdom absorbed by Franks

534 AD

King Arthur killed


King of the Britons killed in the battle of Camlan

Roman territory expands West

538 AD

Justinian aims to reunite Rome

Large Empire

542 AD

Justinian expands the Eastern Roman Empire to its peak

Bubonic Plague in Constantinople

542 AD

No trade or food. Half the populations dies (1 million people) started in Constantinople but it spread.

Theodora becomes empress of Byzantine


Byzantines complete their reconquest of Italy

555 AD

Eastern Empire Collapses

565 AD

Justinian dies and Roman forces are pulled back; the Eastern Empire collapses

Saxons with battle of Dyrrham

577 AD

completing the conquest of most of southern England

St. Augustine begins mission to convert England to Christianity

597 AD

Anglo-Saxon, Introduction to Christianity


Their civilization advances with Christianity

Eastern Roman Empire weakened


Arab conquest of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syria damages the Empire

Charles Martel becomes ruler of the Frankish kingdom

714 AD

Moors cross into France

730 AD

War between the Christian Franks and Muslim Moors

732 AD

Charles Martel Dies


Saxon Wars

772 AD - 804 AD

Franks conquer the Saxons


Bloody verdict of Verdun (massacre)

Vikings raid Lindisfarne

793 AD

Charlemagne becomes King of the Franks

800 AD

Ruled for 14 years and expanded education, economy, and military

Holly Roman Empire

800 - 846

Christian conquest

Death of Charlemagne

814 AD

Wessex Dominant in England

828 AD

Egbert acknowledged as overlord

Vikings raid Wessex

835 AD

Vikings raid inland Ireland

836 AD

Vikings sack London

842 AD

Danish conquest of York

867 AD

Vikings discover Iceland

870 AD

Viking siege of Paris

885 AD

Alfred captures London

886 AD

Louis IV In France

936 AD

Restoration of Carolingian Rule in France

Imperial Coronation of Otto I

962 AD

Foundation of Poland

966 AD

Viking raid on England

980 AD

Death of Louis V

987 AD

Last Carolingian king of France

Battle of Maldon

991 AD

King Olaf Introduces Christianity to Sweden

1000 AD

William the Conqueror defeats King Harold at the Battle of Hastings

1066 AD

Christians Capture Toledo

1085 AD

Establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal

1143 AD

University of Paris Founded

1150 AD

Civil war breaks out in Norway and Sweden

1155 AD

Archbishop Thomas Becket Murdered in Cantebury

1170 AD

Cambridge University Established

1209 AD

Christian victory of Moors in Spain

1212 AD

England becomes Papal Fief

1213 AD

Magna Carta

1215 AD

Treaty of Paris

1259 AD

Wm Wallace defeats English at Sterling

1297 AD

Battle of Bannockburn

1314 AD

Scotland regains independence Under Robert the Bruce

Outbreak of the Hundred Years War

1337 AD

Edward III King of England Assumes the French Crown

1340 AD - 1360 AD

Bubonic Plague

1346 AD - 1353 AD

Peasant Uprising in France

1358 AD

Norway, Sweden, and Denmark United by Union of Kalmar

1397 AD

Death of Chaucer

1400 AD

Death of Joan of Arc

1431 AD

Gutenberg invents the printing press

1450 AD