The Barbary Coast Wars



July 4, 1783

"Two months of hard bargaining resulted in a preliminary articles of peace in which the British accepted American independence and boundaries"
Credit: www.history. state. gov


May 7, 1784

"Congress finally acted in the spring of 1784. On May 7, Congress authorized its Ministers in Paris, Franklin, Jay, and Adams, to conclude treaties of amity and commerce with Russia, Austria, Prussia, Denmark, Saxony, Hamburg, great Britain, Spain, Portugal, Genoa, Tuscany, Rome, Naples, Venice, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Porte as well as the Barbary States of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli."
Credit: www. morocco.usembassy .gov


July 25, 1785

"25 July 1785 Algerian pirates captured the Maria off the coast of Portugal, taking its crew as hostages. On 30 July in nearby waters other pirates overtook the Dauphin, captained by Richard O’Bryen."
Credit: www.gwpapers. virginia. edu


May 26, 1786

After many little Disapointments, I arivd at Algiers the 25th March"
Credit: www.rotunda .upress.virginia .edu

First Treaty

November 4, 1786

"Whether the present arrangement of the sheets that compose the treaty document is the original arrangement thereof is very doubtful; the internal evidence leads to the view that this present arrangement of the document is that which it had when it left the hands of Donaldson. . .includes the translation signed by Donaldson"
Credit: www.avalon .law.yale .edu


April 30, 1789

"On April 30, 1789, George Washington, standing on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York, took his oath of office as the first President of the United States."
Credit: www.whitehouse. gov


January 24, 1791

"During these few weeks Jefferson produced a remarkable series of official reports on Gouverneur Morris' abortive mission to England, on the first case of British impressment of American seamen to be noticed officially, on the interrelated problems of Mediterranean trade and the American captives in Algiers"
Credit: www. press.princeton .edu


October 6, 1793

"A dispatch boat has just arrived from Algiers, which brings authentic1 intelligence, that a Truce for 12 months is concluded between Portugal and that Regency. In consequence of which eight Algerine cruizers, viz. four frigates, one brig and three Xebeques, have just passed through the Streights, into the Atlantic"
Credit: www.founders.archives .gov


March 4, 1797

"In 1796, Adams was elected as the Federalist nominee for president. Thomas Jefferson led the opposition for the Democratic-Republican Party. Adams won the election by a narrow margin, becoming the second president of the United States."
Credit: www.biography .com


July 10, 1797

"Know Ye, That reposing special Trust and Confidence in the Abilities and Integrity of William Eaton a Citizen of the United States, I have nominated and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate do appoint him Consul of the United States of America for the City and Kingdom of Tunis"
Credit: John Adams to William Eaton
www.founders.archives. gov


September 4, 1798

"John Leander Cathcart and William Eaton head to Barbary on brig Sophia escorted by the Hero, loaded with naval stores, brig called Hassan Baschaw with 8 6-pounders, the schooner Skjöldabrand, and the El Eisha to assume posts as consuls of Tripoli and Tunis correspondingly."
Credit: www.barbarywars.wordpress .com


February 17, 1801

"On this day in 1801, Thomas Jefferson is elected the third president of the United States. The election constitutes the first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another in the United States."
Credit: www.history. com


July 1, 1801

"Jefferson sent a naval "squadron of observation" consisting of three frigates--the President, the Philadelphia, and the Essex--and the sloop of war Enterprise. The American fleet arrived in Gibraltar on July 1, 1801, under the command of Commodore Richard Dale. Upon his arrival, Dale was informed that Tripoli had declared war on the United States on May 10, 1801."
Credit: www.marinersmuseum. org


February 6, 1802

"February 6, 1802: Congress passes the Act for Protection of Commerce and Seamen of the United States Against the Tripolitian Corsairs, essentially a declaration of war"
Credit: www.clements.umich. edu


February 16, 1804

"Decatur...went into the harbor...he drifted to within nearly twenty yards of the Philadelphia...when they hailed the Intrepid, the pilot answered that they had lost their anchors in a gale, and asked that they might run a warp to the frigate and ride by her...As the vessels came in contact...they swarmed over the rails and came upon the deck. . .Finally the cables parted, and then the Philadelphia, a mass of flames, drifted across the harbor, and blew up."
Credit: historycarper .com


August 30, 1804

"Preble harassed Tripolitan shipping and fortifications with frequent attacks. The massive fortifications had been built by Christian slaves. Preble's actions reached a climax when the fire-ship Intrepid, loaded with a cargo of gunpowder and explosive shells, was maneuvered into the harbor at night. But the ship exploded prematurely, doing little damage to Tripolitan shipping."
Credit: www.thenewamerican .com

Official Treaty

June 4, 1805

Tobias Lear suddenly stopped the blockade and announced a new treaty."Treaty of Peace and Amity, signed at Tripoli June 4, 1805. . .Original in English and Arabic. Submitted to the Senate December 11, 1805. Resolution of advice and consent April 12, 1806. Ratified by the United States April 17, 1806. As to the ratification generally. . . Proclaimed April 22, 1806. "
Credit: .edu