DP1 History

International

Pretty much Everyone in Economics Crisis

Approx. November 11, 1918 - Approx. 1939

Many countries are in economic crisis or at least recession due to the length and strain of WWI.

World War One Ends

November 11, 1918

In the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month in 1918, WWI ends when Germany signs the Armistice under threat of continued war. In November 1918, Germany had signed a cease-fire. It was called ‘the Armistice’. The Germans could not fight any longer. But they did not think they had surrendered!

The Versailles Conference Begins

January 18, 1919

The Treaty of Versailles is Signed

June 28, 1919

Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles, agreeing to incredibly high reparation costs. The first 26 Articles of the Treaty of Versailles set out the Covenant of the League of Nations; the rest of the 440 Articles-94% of the entire Treaty!- detailed Germany's punishment.

League of Nations is Founded

January 10, 1920

Stock Market Crash

October 29, 1929

Great Depression

October 29th, 1929 - Approx. 1941

The Great Depression is caused by the Stock Market crash on "Black Tuesday" and the world is majorly recovered by 1941 when the United States joined WWII.

League of Nations Dissolves

July 31, 1947

Germany

The Kaiser Abdicates the Throne and Leaves Germany

November 9, 1918

SaiNTS Treaties

Approx. 1919 - Approx. 1920

Germany signs treaties with other nations after WWI.

All four countries [Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary and Turkey] had to pay reparations, they all had to disarm, and they all lost land.
The treaties also created new nation-states in Eastern Europe out of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire (per the principle of self-determination):

The treaties created new nation-states:
Czechs and Slovaks in Czechoslovakia
Hungarians in Hungary
Austrians in Austria
Poles in Poland
Slavs in Yugoslavia

Stressman Becomes the Chancellor of Germany

1923

One Third of the German Budget is spent on War Pensions

1925

Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany

January 1933

Hitler is apointed by Hindenburg as Chancellor of Germany

Decree for the Protection of the German People

February 4, 1933

Constraints on the press
Authorized police to ban political meetings and marches
Hindering electoral campaigning

Reichstag Fire

February 27, 1933

Reichstag Building burned down- arson
Origins Unknown
Nazi Press describes fire as signal of planned Communist Uprising
Exploited by Nazi’s to secure support from Hindenburg for Decree for the Protection of the People and the State

Nazis seize power of the Lander

March 5, 1933 - March 9, 1933

Reichstag Election

March 5, 1933

The Nazi Party gains 43.9% of the 288 seats. Its coalition partners, The Nationalists, gain 8%.

Himmler Establishes the first Concentration Camp

March 20, 1933

at Dachau

Enabling Act Passed

March 23, 1933

Gives Hitler the power to pass laws without consulting the Reichstag.

Germany Invades Poland

September 1, 1939

The invasion of Poland is the first declaration of war kick starting WWII.

Hitler Commits Suicide

April 30, 1945

Italy

Mussolini is Released from Prison and Appointed editor of Avanti

1912

Avanti is the socialist newspaper, and remember Mussolini jailed for trying to start an uprising.

Mussolini Resigns from Avanti! and starts Il Popolo d'Italia

1914

Mussolini claims his newspaper is socialist but it's fascist before fascism is a thing.

Mussolini Founds Fascism

1919

The PPI is formed

january, 1919

The PPI is the Catholic party

Orlando Leaves Versailles

April 24, 1919

The prime minister of Italy leaves Versailles during negotiations because he feels other countries of the council were not treating Italy with respect.

Socialist Occupation of Factories

september 1920

Socialist engineers and factory workers go on strike

The Fascist Party takes 35 Seats in the Italian Parliament

may 1921

National Fascist Party Founded (PNF)

October 1921

Mussolini makes a direct attempt to appease the Catholics

november 1921

Economic Boom in Italy

Approx. 1922 - Approx. 1925

Fascists Seize key buildings in preparation for the march on rome

October 27, 1922

The Last Liberal Government Resigns

October 28, 1922

Mussolini becomes Prime Minister in Italy

Approx. October 29th, 1922

He is invited by the king

Prefects Made Responsible for Censorship

1923

Mussolini Creates the Fascist Militia (MSVN)

January 1923

Members of the Fascist Militia (about 300,000 blackshirts) report directly to Mussolini.

Early Measures of Mussolini's Relationship with the Church

1923

Mussolini increases clerical salary, reinstates religious education in schools, and restores Crucifix in classrooms and courts.

Government Agency That Produces Documentaries is Formed

1924

All the crazy Mussolini videos

Radios are State Controlled

1924

Matteotti is Murdered

june 10th, 1924

The Matteotti Crisis is eventually tied back to Mussolini through the confession

All Newspapers are Government Controlled

December, 1925

The Last Opposing News Papers Have Conformed or Dissolved

1926

Mussolini Has the Right to Issue Laws by Personal Decree

January, 1926

The Lateran Accords

1929

Vatican City becomes it's own country, and The Vatican and Italy have a written alliance between them.

Russia

The Russian Revolution

Approx. 1917

February Revolution- overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II
October Revolution- Lennin and Bolesheviks to power
Shifting Trade Patterns
U.S. increases share of international trade- 10% in 1914; 20% in 1919
Japan and China also increased in power on the world stage.

The United Kingdom

Catholics are not allowed to sit in parliament

1900

Seats were given to the Irish in the House of Commons, but this was bad because most Irish people are catholic, so the only Irish people represented in parliament were the protestants from Ulster.

Redmond Establishes Provisional Government

1922

Ireland breaks away from the UK

1922

The UK is made of Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and England. Great Britain is England, Scotland, and Wales.

Spain

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Workers on left becoming more
radicalized
Right seeking a way to carry out a
military coup
Moderates + democrats try to maintain a
constitutional and democratic regime
From April onwards, violent clashes took place on the streets. Meanwhile, the military plotted against the Republic.

Franco Leads a Military Coup

17 july 1936 - 19 july 1936

Military officers (army, navy) execute coordinated rebellion against Republic in response to political assassinations
Some officers/military men oppose rebellion
Army of Africa (Franco) brought over with help of navy, Germans
Successful in taking control of some areas of the country, but key areas like Madrid, Catalonia and the Basque Country remained in the hands of the government of the Republic.