Many countries are in economic crisis or at least recession due to the length and strain of WWI.
In the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month in 1918, WWI ends when Germany signs the Armistice under threat of continued war. In November 1918, Germany had signed a cease-fire. It was called ‘the Armistice’. The Germans could not fight any longer. But they did not think they had surrendered!
Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles, agreeing to incredibly high reparation costs. The first 26 Articles of the Treaty of Versailles set out the Covenant of the League of Nations; the rest of the 440 Articles-94% of the entire Treaty!- detailed Germany's punishment.
The Great Depression is caused by the Stock Market crash on "Black Tuesday" and the world is majorly recovered by 1941 when the United States joined WWII.
Germany signs treaties with other nations after WWI.
All four countries [Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary and Turkey] had to pay reparations, they all had to disarm, and they all lost land.
The treaties also created new nation-states in Eastern Europe out of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire (per the principle of self-determination):
The treaties created new nation-states:
Czechs and Slovaks in Czechoslovakia
Hungarians in Hungary
Austrians in Austria
Poles in Poland
Slavs in Yugoslavia
Hitler is apointed by Hindenburg as Chancellor of Germany
Constraints on the press
Authorized police to ban political meetings and marches
Hindering electoral campaigning
Reichstag Building burned down- arson
Nazi Press describes fire as signal of planned Communist Uprising
Exploited by Nazi’s to secure support from Hindenburg for Decree for the Protection of the People and the State
The Nazi Party gains 43.9% of the 288 seats. Its coalition partners, The Nationalists, gain 8%.
Gives Hitler the power to pass laws without consulting the Reichstag.
The invasion of Poland is the first declaration of war kick starting WWII.
Avanti is the socialist newspaper, and remember Mussolini jailed for trying to start an uprising.
Mussolini claims his newspaper is socialist but it's fascist before fascism is a thing.
The PPI is the Catholic party
The prime minister of Italy leaves Versailles during negotiations because he feels other countries of the council were not treating Italy with respect.
Socialist engineers and factory workers go on strike
He is invited by the king
Members of the Fascist Militia (about 300,000 blackshirts) report directly to Mussolini.
Mussolini increases clerical salary, reinstates religious education in schools, and restores Crucifix in classrooms and courts.
All the crazy Mussolini videos
The Matteotti Crisis is eventually tied back to Mussolini through the confession
Vatican City becomes it's own country, and The Vatican and Italy have a written alliance between them.
February Revolution- overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II
October Revolution- Lennin and Bolesheviks to power
Shifting Trade Patterns
U.S. increases share of international trade- 10% in 1914; 20% in 1919
Japan and China also increased in power on the world stage.
Seats were given to the Irish in the House of Commons, but this was bad because most Irish people are catholic, so the only Irish people represented in parliament were the protestants from Ulster.
The UK is made of Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and England. Great Britain is England, Scotland, and Wales.
Workers on left becoming more
Right seeking a way to carry out a
Moderates + democrats try to maintain a
constitutional and democratic regime
From April onwards, violent clashes took place on the streets. Meanwhile, the military plotted against the Republic.
Military officers (army, navy) execute coordinated rebellion against Republic in response to political assassinations
Some officers/military men oppose rebellion
Army of Africa (Franco) brought over with help of navy, Germans
Successful in taking control of some areas of the country, but key areas like Madrid, Catalonia and the Basque Country remained in the hands of the government of the Republic.