Aristotle designed his model from reasoning ideas, like that the earth was spherical, that the earth was at the centre of the universe, and that the sun, moon, and planets all revolved around the earth.
Ptolomy improved Aristotles model, making it more elaborate by putting circles within circles. His model lasted the longest of any, because he had the support of the church.
Copernicus suggested that, similar to Aristarchus, the sun was stationary at the centre of the universe and that all other bodies revolved around it in circular paths.
Brahe plotted all his observations of the heavens using instruments of his own design. He was extremely thorough, so the predictions he made were much more accurate than many other methods. His model of the universe was both helio, and geo centric, with the planets revolving around the sun, and the sun revolving around the earth.
Galilei was able to make many observations not yet made, because of the invention of the telescope. Galilei made his own telescopes through which he proved the geocentric model to be incorrect.
Kepler was able to used brahe’s records for his own research from which he finally developed his own heliocentric model. He said that the planets movements around the sun were elliptical though. He also believed that the closer the planets were to the sun, the faster they orbited.
Newton investigated and proved his theory of gravity's existance on earth and now knowing that the heliocentric model was the correct one, showed by his own universal gravitaioal law that the sun being the centre of the universe could be proved using mathematics.
Michis kaku was the co founder of the string theru. A theory that unites all four forces of nature. According to the theory, all particles are actually tiny vibrating strings and each type of vibration corresponds to a different particle. Strong theory also requires us to accept the existence of extra dimensions to make a total of 11.