at lunch counters
members of NAACP youth councils in Wichita and Oklahoma
"albeit on the fringes of the South"
demanded to be served at a department store which customarily excluded blacks
Their "sit-ins" succeeded
"typically, however, the national leadership of the NAACP failed to capitalise on this initiative, having little faith in the efficacy of nonviolent direct action"
although, Thurgood Marshall did support their actions and help with bailing out many black protestors
"none of these scattered protests added up to a regional movement"
(Also talking about the small bus boycotts in Tallahassee, Florida and Shereveport, Louisiana)
Fairclough denies that these were "spontaneous" as some historians such as William Chafe have claimed
-newspaper reporter was arranged to be on hand from the Greensboro Record
Following day, 29 students sat-in
Day three, students occupied all but two of the 65 avaliable seats
By Friday, the sit-ins had spread to >300 students and a nearby S H Kress store
Saturday, both Woolworths and Kress closed their doors
"The Greensboro sit ins quickly became a national news item"
"within days" sit-ins were happening in:
quickly spread to adjacent states:
"if boycotts were passive, sit-ins were assertive. Students physically challenged segregation, placing their bodies direclty in the way of Jim Crow"
The sit-ins were also backed up by picketing stores and staging marches and rallies
=> challenged the unspoken rule that the streets belonged to whites, not blacks
"public demonstrations by black people were virtually unherd of- only ten years earlier, civil rights groups had dismissed them as suicidal"
"the willingless to brave white mobs and defy the police distinguished the sit-ins from the Montgomery bus boycott"
"in many places hostile whites, undeterred and even encouraged by the police, shoved, kicked, and punched demonstrators, poured ketchip on their heads, and thrust lighted cigarettes against their bodies"
police sometimes even used tear gasses and automatic arrests of demonstratos
~3600 students arrested for protest related offenses in 1960
like Montgomery, the sit-ins also "evoked warm sympathy from many white people in the North"
=> Northern press "overwhelmingly positive"
NBC documentary portrayed black protestors as committed, earnest and religious
Time magazine hailed the sit-ins as a "non-violent protest the likes of which the US had never seen"
Eisenhower said the students were standing up for American values
Some White southerners even joined the civil rights movement
Greensboro, Tallahassee, New Orleans + othjers white students sat in, walked on picket lines and went to jail
Whites joined CORE chapters, multiplied dramatically in the wake of the sit-ins + joined SNCC
"they were few in number, to be sure. Yet in the context of the Jim Crow South, this incipient interracialism represented a revolutionary challenge to white supremacy"