A political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between. Some feudal lords existed with a servile labour force and huge tracts of land, but by the 11th century, many cities, including Venice, Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, and many others had become large trading metropoles, able to obtain independence from their formal sovereigns
Durer- painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German Renaissance. He established his reputation and influence across Europe due to his high-quality woodcut prints.
Raphael- an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.
Giotto- Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Renaissance.
van Eyck- Netherlandish painter active in Bruges and one of the most significant Northern Renaissance artists of the 15th century
During the Renaissance, it exhibited itself in the development of humanism, when people began to show more interest in human cultural achievements and the possibilities of their fulfillment in this world
An Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often considered the founder of Humanism.
Chiaroscuro- an effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or from a particular direction on something
Sfumato- allowing tones and colors to shade gradually into one another, producing softened outlines or hazy forms
Linear Persepctive- the relative size, shape, and position of objects are determined by drawn or imagined lines converging at a point on the horizon.
Emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music, and science. It took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge.
An Italian French late medieval author. She served as a court writer for several dukes and the French royal court during the reign of Charles VI. She wrote both poetry and prose works such as biographies and books containing practical advice for women.
A Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.
Refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness.
He was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. He is best known for his textual analysis that proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery.
An Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank.
Leonardo da Vinci was a leading artist and intellectual of the Italian Renaissance who's known for his enduring works "The Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa." He was considered a true Renaissance Man who experimented and had interests in every category imaginable.
A peace agreement between Milan, Naples, and Florence signed on April 9, 1454 at Lodi in Lombardy. It put an end to the long struggles between expansive Milan, under Filippo Maria Visconti, and Venice.
An Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher. He is famed for the events of 1486, when at the age of 23, he proposed to defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy, and magic against all comers, for which he wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance"
Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art
He was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author who is most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier, which dealt with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier.
In 1494, he made an alliance with Ludovico Sforza of Milan and led a French army into northern Italy.
Pope Alexander VI formed an alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy: himself; Ferdinand of Aragon, the Emperor Maximilian I, Ludovico in Milan, and the Republic of Venice.