City States/ Merchants

800 - 1400

A political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between. Some feudal lords existed with a servile labour force and huge tracts of land, but by the 11th century, many cities, including Venice, Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, and many others had become large trading metropoles, able to obtain independence from their formal sovereigns

Various Artists

1266 - 1528

Durer- painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German Renaissance. He established his reputation and influence across Europe due to his high-quality woodcut prints.
Raphael- an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.
Giotto- Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Renaissance.
van Eyck- Netherlandish painter active in Bruges and one of the most significant Northern Renaissance artists of the 15th century


1300 - 1500

During the Renaissance, it exhibited itself in the development of humanism, when people began to show more interest in human cultural achievements and the possibilities of their fulfillment in this world


1304 - 1374

An Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often considered the founder of Humanism.

Characteristics of Art

1350 - 1600

Chiaroscuro- an effect of contrasted light and shadow created by light falling unevenly or from a particular direction on something
Sfumato- allowing tones and colors to shade gradually into one another, producing softened outlines or hazy forms
Linear Persepctive- the relative size, shape, and position of objects are determined by drawn or imagined lines converging at a point on the horizon.


1350 - 1600

Emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music, and science. It took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity but transformed that tradition by absorbing recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by applying contemporary scientific knowledge.

De Pisan

1364 - 1430

An Italian French late medieval author. She served as a court writer for several dukes and the French royal court during the reign of Charles VI. She wrote both poetry and prose works such as biographies and books containing practical advice for women.


1400 - 1600

A Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.


1400 - 1600

Refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness.

Lorenzo Valla

1407 - 1457

He was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. He is best known for his textual analysis that proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery.

Medici/ Florence

1434 - 1492

An Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank.

Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Leonardo da Vinci was a leading artist and intellectual of the Italian Renaissance who's known for his enduring works "The Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa." He was considered a true Renaissance Man who experimented and had interests in every category imaginable.

Treaty of Lodi


A peace agreement between Milan, Naples, and Florence signed on April 9, 1454 at Lodi in Lombardy. It put an end to the long struggles between expansive Milan, under Filippo Maria Visconti, and Venice.

De Mirandola

1463 - 1494

An Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher. He is famed for the events of 1486, when at the age of 23, he proposed to defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy, and magic against all comers, for which he wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance"


1475 - 1564

Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art


1478 - 1529

He was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author who is most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier, which dealt with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier.

Charles VIII Invades Italy

1494 - 1498

In 1494, he made an alliance with Ludovico Sforza of Milan and led a French army into northern Italy.

League of Venice

1495 - 1498

Pope Alexander VI formed an alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy: himself; Ferdinand of Aragon, the Emperor Maximilian I, Ludovico in Milan, and the Republic of Venice.