Influential Events

Black Plague

1346 - 1353

Major shift in eco-political realm, inspired doubt in church and government, shifted power towards peasantry after population loss.

Boccaccio "The Decameron"


Written about commoners during the Plague

Printing Press


Gutenberg Bible in vernacular; Speedy spread of Ideas


Humanism made a name for itself during the renaissance and replaced, or began to replace, Scholasticism of the church as the major intellectual paradigm of the time. Philosophy of the time took many aspects form ancient Greece, like Platonism and the belief of forms, and the resurgence of the Allegory of the Cave.

Life of Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism; Cicerco's Letter

Life of Christine De Pisan

1364 - 1430

The Book of the City of Ladies

Life of Valla

1407 - 1457


Life of Della Mirandola

1463 - 1494

900 Theses: 1486

Life of Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Humanist; Critiqued Papacy

Life of Baldasare Castiglione

1478 - 1529

The Book of the Coutier: 1528

Life of Machiavelli

1489 - 1528

The Prince: 1513


Through the Renaissance, Art took on new dimensions, depth, with plays on shadows and haze. In the North, this art was largely secular, but in Italy, the art was largely Catholic and relating back to pagan Greece.

Life of Giotto

1266 - 1337

Considered First of the Renaissance artists; Paint

Life of van Eyck

1390 - 1441

Arnolfini Wedding; Linear Perspective; Northern Renaissance

Life of Da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Renaissance Man; Chiaroscuro; Sfumato; Mona Lisa

Life of Durer

1471 - 1528

German printmaker; Painted self in style of Jesus

Life of Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

Pieta; David; Sistine Chapel

Life of Raphael

1483 - 1520

School of Athens; Linear Perspective


The Church served to rule everyday life of the time, giving legitimacy to monarchs and draining the money of the populous to feed holy endeavors. Conciliar Theory began to shift Church power form the Pope to his Council, but the Papacy continued to fight this trend.

Unam Sanctum


Declared Supremacy of the Pope over the Church

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

The French Popes in Avignon in direct opposition to Rome

Pope Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

Borgia Pope

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Warrior Pope


John Wycliffe and the Lollards


Church Reformer

Jan Huss


Reformer; Burnt at stake

Act of Supremacy


Henry VIII becomes Head of Church of England

Political Figures

Reign of Edward III

1327 - 1377

Instigated the 100 Years' War

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

Defender of France, Warrior, Burnt at stake by English

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1504

Catholic Monarchs join Castille and Aragon

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Advisor to Henry VIII, beheaded for religious belief

Tudor Dynasty

1485 - 1603

Tudors after War of the Roses; Henry VII; Henry VIII founds Anglican Church; Elizabeth I

War and Rebellion

100 Years' War

1337 - 1453

England v France, lots of influence on the historical realm, loss of population, France wins



French popular revolt

Reign of Savonarola

1494 - 1498

French sympathizing Dominican who led Florence in theocracy under France before being deposed

Charles VIII Invades Italy


Pushed by Savanarola to spite other Italian kingdoms

League of Venice


Pope Alexander Vi arranges Italians against France

Treaty of Naples


United Milan, Naples, and Florence against French agression

Navigation and Conquest

Henry the Navigator

1415 - 1460

Portuguese Prince funded travel

Colombus discovers the Americas


Spainard; Lands in Hispaniola

Da Gama arrives in India


First European to see India; Portuguese

Encomienda System

1503 - 1538

Basic enslavement of Native population of Spanish America

Magellan Circumnavigates the Globe

1519 - 1522

Or, more so, his ship

Cortes conquers the Aztecs


Aztecs under Moctezuma fall to Cortes' Spainards

Bartolome de las Casas


Short Account of the Destruction of the Indians; Protector of Indians

Pizarro conquers Inca


Inca under Atahualpa fall to Pizarro's Spainards