Dutch eyeglass makers Zacharias and Hans Janssen made one of the first compound microscopes. It was a tube with a lens at each end.
Robert Hooke's compound microscope included an oil lamp for a lighting. A lens focuses light from the flame onto the specimen.
Although Anton van Leeuwenhoek's simple microscope used only one tiny lens, it could magnify a specimen up to 266 times.
German scientist Ernst Abbe and Carl Zeiss made a compound light microscope with complex lenses that greatly improved the image. A mirror focuses light up through the specimen. Modern compound Microscopes can effectively magnify a specimen up to 1,000 times.
German physicisst Ernst Ruska created the first electron microscope. TEMs send electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen. TEMs can magnify a specimen up to 500,000 times.
An Sem Sends electrons over the surface of a specimen, rather than through it. The result is a three-dimensional image of the specimen's surface. SEMs can magnify a specimen up to 150,000 times.
An STM Measures electrons that leak, or "tunnel," from the surface of a specimen. STMs can magnify a specimen up to 1,000,000