Dutch eyeglass makers Zacharias and Hans Janssen made one of the first compound microscopes. It was a tube with a lens at each end.
1660 Hooke's Compound Microscope
Robert Hooke's compound microscope included an oil lamp for a lighting. A lens focuses light from the flame onto the specimen.
1674 Leeuwenhoek's Simple Microscope
Although Anton van Leeuwenhoek's simple microscope used only one tiny lens, it could magnify a specimen up to 266 times.
1886 Modern Compound Light Microscope
German scientist Ernst Abbe and Carl Zeiss made a compound light microscope with complex lenses that greatly improved the image. A mirror focuses light up through the specimen. Modern compound Microscopes can effectively magnify a specimen up to 1,000 times.
1933 Transmission Electron Micro Scope (TEM)
German physicisst Ernst Ruska created the first electron microscope. TEMs send electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen. TEMs can magnify a specimen up to 500,000 times.
1965 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
An Sem Sends electrons over the surface of a specimen, rather than through it. The result is a three-dimensional image of the specimen's surface. SEMs can magnify a specimen up to 150,000 times.
1981 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)
An STM Measures electrons that leak, or "tunnel," from the surface of a specimen. STMs can magnify a specimen up to 1,000,000