Adolf Hitler timeline

Events

Hitler is born in Austria

April 20, 1889

Hitler is born in Braunau Am Inn, Austria. His parents, Alois and Klara, come from poor peasant families.

Hitler's father died.

Approx. January 3, 1903

The death of his father when Adolf was 13, releases the pressure on him to get a job working for the civil service, Adolf is able to pursue his preferred choice of study, that of art

Hitler's mother dies.

January 14, 1907

Klara Hitler dies of cancer. The loss of his mother affects Hitler deeply and it is said that he has a photo of her in his pocket when he dies.

Hitler attended the Vienna Academy of Art

2/1908

At the age of 17, Hitler moves to Vienna, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He plans to attend art school there but when he is rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts for the second time in October, he gives up on his dream.

Hitler begins military service in World War I.

1914

After ignoring his army orders in 1909 because of his hate for Austria and later being rejected by the Austrian army for being too weak, Hitler volunteers for Germany. With a war happening, medical examinations were not a strict and Hitler is accepted. Hitler joined the 16th Barvarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. He distinguishes himself in service, being promoted to corporal and decorated with the Iron Cross for services as a runner on the western front.

Hitler's wound

October 7, 1916

Hitler suffers a serious thigh wound at the Battle of the Somme. Hitler is sent back to Munich to recover and this is when he clips his moustache into its familiar form.

Hitler is blinded by mustard gas (temporarily)

October, 1918

At the time of the armistice, Hitler is lying in hospital suffering from temporary blindness due to a British gas attack in Ypres Salient. He returns to his regiment in Munich, later in the year.

Hitler entered politics

May 1919

In Munich, Hitler convinces the German army that he is against socialism and avoids arrest. He helps the army find other soldiers who did support socialism and he is recruited to be a political officer.

Hitler is appointed to the Intelligence/Propaganda section where he undertakes political training. His activities involve making speeches to the troops advocating German nationalism and anti-Socialism, where he developed further his oratory skills.
He also acts as an army informer, spying on small political parties. He joins the German Workers’ Party, an extreme anti-communist, anti-Semitic right wing organisation.

Adolf Hitler deelivered the 'Twenty-Five Theses' Speech'

February 24, 1920

This political manifesto demands the union of all Germans into a greater German Reich, a rejection of the Treaty of Versailles and decrees that no Jew be considered a German.

Hitler's discharged

March 1920

Hitler was discharged from the army and with his former superiors' continued encouragement began participating full time in the party's activities.

Hitler's step foward

July 29, 1921

Adolf Hitler was introduced as Führer of the Nazi Party, marking the first time that title was publicly used to address him.

Hitler renames the group the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi Party) and adopts the swastika as its symbol.

Beer Hall Putsch

November 8, 1923 - November 9, 1923

Hitler attempts to sieze power in a coup in Munich known as the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler and 2000 Nazi’s march through Munich to the Beer Hall, to take over a meeting chaired by three of the most important individuals in Bavarian politics.
A firefight breaks out with the police and sixteen Nazis and three police are killed. Hitler narrowly escapes serious injury and is arrested

HItler's trial

Feb 26 1924

Adolf Hitler goes on trial for treason.

Rather than deny the charges, Hitler admitted wanting to overthrow the government and outlined his reasons, portraying himself as a German patriot and the democratic government itself, its founders and leaders, as the real criminals.

Thus, for the first time, the German people as a whole had a chance to get acquainted with this man and his thinking. And many liked what they heard.

Hitler sentenced

1 April 1924

Hitler was sentenced to five years' imprisonment at Landsberg Prison. Hitler received favoured treatment from the guards and had much fan mail from admirers

Hitler release

20 December 1924

He was pardoned and released from jail by order of the Bavarian Supreme Court on 19 December, which issued its final rejection of the state prosecutor's objections to Hitler's early release. Including time on remand, he had served little more than one year of his sentence.

"Mein Kampf" published

1925

Hitler never actually sat down and pecked at a typewriter or wrote longhand, but instead dictated it to Rudolph Hess while pacing around his prison cell in 1923-24 and later at an inn at Berchtesgaden.

Release

Feb 26 1925

A few days before Christmas, 1924, Adolf Hitler emerged a free man after nine months in prison, having learned from his mistakes
He now realized it had been premature to attempt to overthrow the democratic government by force without the support of the German Army and other established institutions

Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun Meet

Oct 1929

She met Hitler, 23 years her senior, at Hoffmann's studio of Munich in October 1929

Nazis come to power through the Great Depression

October 29, 1929

The Great Depression began and they were cast into poverty and deep misery and began looking for a solution, any solution.Adolf Hitler knew his opportunity had arrived.

Bruening asked Hindenburg in July 1930 to dissolve the Reichstag according to parliamentary rules and call for new elections.
The elections were set for September 14. Hitler and the Nazis sprang into action. Their time for campaigning had arrived

Adolf Hitler runs for president of Germany

February 1932

In February 1932, President Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to run again and announced his candidacy for re-election.
Hitler decided to oppose him and run for the presidency himself.
"Freedom and Bread," was the slogan used by Hitler with great effect during the Nazi campaign against tired old President Hindenburg.

Adolf Hitler is Granted German Citizenship

Feb 25 1932

Though Hitler had left Austria in 1913, he still had not acquired German citizenship and hence could not run for public office. In February, however, the state government of Brunswick, in which the Nazi Party participated, appointed Hitler to a minor administrative post and therby made him a citizen of Brunswick on 25 February 1932. In those days, the states conferred citizenship, so this automatically made Hitler a citizen of Germany and thus eligible to run for president.

Hindenburg Appoints Hitler Chancellor of Germany

Jan 30 1933

in Hindenburg's office, Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor during what some observers later described as a brief and simple ceremony.

His first speech as Chancellor took place on February 10. The Nazis' seizure of power subsequently became known as the Machtergreifung. Hitler established the Reichssicherheitsdienst as his personal bodyguards.

Adolf Hitler First Goal

Feb 3 1933

In a meeting with his leading generals and admirals, Hitler spoke of "conquest of Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy objectives.

Reichstag Fire Decree

February 27, 1933

The Nazis stage a fire at the German parliament in Berlin, the Reichstag. Hitler claims that communists are behind the arson and the SA and SS arrest, torture and execute thousands of communist supporters.

Hitler came to absolute power

March 23 1933

The Nazis' "Enabling Act" passes in the Reichstag. This Act was officially called the "Law for Removing the Distress of the People and the Reich" and effectively ended democracy, handing the dictatorship to Hitler.

the first Nazi concentration camp opened in Germany named Dachau

Hermann Göring Forms the Gestapo

Apr 26 1933

Adolf Hitler Visits Benito Mussolini in Venice

Jun 14 1934 - Jun 16 1934

Hitler rejected Part V of the Versailles treaty by publicly announcing that the German army would be expanded to 600,000 men (six times the number stipulated in the Treaty of Versailles), introducing an Air Force (Luftwaffe) and increasing the size of the Navy (Kriegsmarine).

Night of the Long Knives

6/30/1934 - 7/2/1934

when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political executions, most of those killed being members of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the paramilitary Brownshirts. Adolf Hitler moved against the SA and its leader, Ernst Röhm, because he saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his power.

Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany

August 2, 1934

After President Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934, Hitler replaced the offices of chancellor and president with a single dictatorial position by declaring himself Führer ("Leader") of a new German Reich – the Third Reich.

Hitler Announces Nuremberg Laws

Sep 15 1935

The Nuremberg Laws classified people with four German grandparents as "German or kindred blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. A person with one or two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling, a crossbreed, of "mixed blood". These laws deprived Jews of German citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans.

The Nuremberg Laws themselves included a ban on sexual intercourse between (people defined as) "Jews" and (non-Jewish) Germans, and preventing "Jews" from participating in German civic life. As to the Jews, these laws were, to some extent, an attempt to revert to a state of affairs previous their emancipation in the 19th century.

Hitler first act

1936

Hitler re-occupies the Rheinland area of Germany declared a demilitarized zone after World War I. He tries unsuccessfully to forge an alliance with the United Kingdom. Hitler opens the Summer Olympic Games in Berlin

Hitler Time magazine

1938

Hitler is named Time Magazine’s “Man of the Year”, a dubious honor given to someone who “for better or for worse, ...has done the most to influence the events of the year”.

Munich Agreement

Sep 30 1938

The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia in the face of territorial demands made by German dictator Adolf Hitler. The agreement, signed by Germany, France, Britain, and Italy permitted German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. The Sudetenland was of immense strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were situated there.

Because the state of Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference, the Munich Agreement is sometimes called the Munich Dictate by Czechs and Slovaks

Kristallnacht

Nov 9 1938 - Nov 10 1938

the Night of Broken Glass was an anti-Jewish pogrom in Nazi Germany and Austria on 9 to 10 November 1938.
Kristallnacht was triggered by the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German-born Polish Jew. In a coordinated attack on Jewish people and their property, 91 Jews were murdered and 25,000 to 30,000 were arrested and deported to concentration camps. 110 synagogues were destroyed and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. This was done by the Hitler Youth, Gestapo, SS and SA.

Adolf Hitler orders "Plan Z"

Jan 27 1939

Plan Z was the name given to the planned re-equipment and expansion of the Nazi German Navy (Kriegsmarine)
The plan called for a Kriegsmarine of ten battleships, four aircraft carriers, three battlecruisers, eight heavy cruisers, 44 light cruisers, 68 destroyers and 249 U-boats by 1944 that was meant to challenge the naval power of the United Kingdom

Hitler renounces the Anglo-German Naval Agreement

Apr 28 1939

The A.G.N.A fixed a ratio where the total tonnage of the Kriegsmarine was to be 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy on a permanent basis. The agreement was renounced by Adolf Hitler

Hitler renounces German-Polish Non-Agression Pact

Apr 28 1939

In it, both countries pledged to resolve their problems through bilateral negotiations and to forgo armed conflict for a period of ten years. It effectively normalized relations between Poland and Germany, which were previously strained by border disputes arising from the territorial settlement in the Treaty of Versailles. As a consequence of the treaty, Germany effectively recognized Poland's borders and moved to end an economically damaging customs war which existed between the two countries during the previous decade.

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

August 23, 1939

was an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-Aggression between the Third German Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and signed in Moscow
It was a Non-Aggression Pact between the two countries and pledged neutrality by either party if the other were attacked by a third party. Each signatory promised not to join any grouping of powers that was "directly or indirectly aimed at the other party." It remained in effect until 22 June 1941 when Germany implemented Operation Barbarossa, invading the Soviet Union.

Fall Weiss: Germany Attacks Poland

Sep 1 1939

The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe

Adolf Hitler Approves the Manstein Plan

Feb 17 1940

Fedor von Bock and the 9th Panzer Division, using its Blitzkreig strategy, advanced quickly into the Netherlands. Belgium was also invaded and the French 7th Army moved forward to help support the Dutch and Belgian forces.

France Surrenders to Nazi Germany

Jun 22 1940

In April 1940, German forces invaded Denmark and Norway. In May 1940, Hitler's forces attacked France, conquering the Luxembourg, Netherlands and Belgium in the process. France surrendered on 22 June 1940. These victories persuaded Benito Mussolini of Italy to join the war on Hitler's side on 10 June 1940.

On 27 September 1940, the Tripartite Treaty was signed in Berlin by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Hitler, and Ciano

Hitler calling for a Plan to Invade Britain

Jul 16 1940

The plan, code named Unternehmen Seelöwe ("Operation Sealion"), was submitted by the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or "High Command of the Armed Forces") and was scheduled to take place in mid-September 1940. Seelöwe called for landings on the south coast of Great Britain, backed by an airborne assault.

Operation Barbarossa Begins

Jun 22 1941

Over 4.5 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a 2,900 km (1,800 mile) front. Planning for Operation Barbarossa started on 18 December 1940; the secret preparations and the military operation itself lasted almost a year, from spring 1940 to winter 1941.

Barbarossa's operational goal was rapid conquest of the European part of the Soviet Union west of a line connecting the cities of Arkhangelsk and Astrakhan, often called the A-A line (see the translation of Hitler's directive for details). At its end in January 1942, the Red Army had repelled the Wehrmacht's strongest blow

Operation Barbarossa's failure led to Hitler's demands for further operations inside the USSR, all of which eventually failed, such as continuing the Siege of Leningrad, Operation Nordlicht, and Battle of Stalingrad, among other battles on the occupied Soviet territory.

Babi Yar Massacre

Sep 29 1941 - Sep 30 1941

The decision to exterminate the Jews of Kiev was made on September 26, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks against German troops, by the military governor

On 29 and 30 September 1941, a special team of German SS troops supported by other German units, local collaborators murdered 33,771 Jewish civilians after taking them to the ravine.

Adolf Hitler Implements the Nacht und Nebel Directive

Dec 7 1941

Adolf Hitler on 7 December 1941 signed and implemented by Armed Forces High Command Chief Wilhelm Keitel, resulting in kidnapping and forced disappearance of many political activists and resistance 'helpers' throughout Nazi Germany's occupied territories, principally in Western Europe.

In 1942, the Gestapo took things a step further via Hitler's Night and Fog Decree. Suspected anti-Nazis would now vanish without a trace into the misty night never to be seen again.

Hitler and Mussolini Declare War on the United States

Dec 11 1941

Hitler's declaration of war against the United States on 11 December 1941, four days after the Empire of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and six days after Nazi Germany's closest approach to Moscow, set him against a coalition that included the world's largest empire (the British Empire), the world's greatest industrial and financial power (the United States), and the world's largest army (the Soviet Union).

He also believed that Japan was much stronger than it was, that once it had defeated the United States, it would turn and help Germany defeat Russia. So at 3:30 p.m. (Berlin time) on December 11, the German charge d'affaires in Washington handed American Secretary of State Cordell Hull a copy of the declaration of war.

Adolf Hitler Lays Out His Vision of the 'Final Solution to the Jewish Question'

Jan 20 1942

The purpose of the conference was to inform administrative leaders of Departments responsible for various policies relating to Jews, that Reinhard Heydrich had been appointed as the chief executor of the "Final solution to the Jewish question", and to obtain their full support

Battle of Stalingrad Begins

Jul 17 1942

The German offensive to take Stalingrad, the battle inside the city, and the Soviet counter-offensive which eventually trapped and destroyed the German 6th Army and other Axis forces around the city, was the first large-scale German land defeat of World War II

It's important to note that Hitler's directive did not demand to occupy the city of Stalingrad. The directive was "to reach Stalingrad itself, or at least to cover it with heavy artillery, so that it will no longer be an industrial or transportation center"

It was the stubborn battle to occupy the city itself to the last ruined meter, and later Hitler's refusal to retreat from Stalingrad, that cost him his entire southern campaign, and horrible losses to both sides

In April 1942, Hitler issued "war directive 41", which detailed his plan for the Russian front for summer 1942, code named Operation Blue.

Second Battle of El Alamein

Oct 23 1942 - Nov 5 1942

The prize for the Axis (German and Italian forces under the command of the German general, Erwin Rommel) was Egypt and the Suez Canal. The destruction of the Axis forces in the Theatre was the focus of Allied operations. El Alamein was, in effect the closest the Axis came to achieving their goal

Battle of Kursk Begins

Jul 4 1943

It remains both the largest series of armoured clashes, including the Battle of Prokhorovka, and the costliest single day of aerial warfare to date. It was the last strategic offensive the Germans were able to mount in the east. The resulting decisive Soviet victory gave the Red Army the strategic initiative for the rest of the war.

Allied Invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky) Begins

Jul 9 1943

The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign, in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis (Italy and Nazi Germany). It was a large scale amphibious and airborne operation, followed by six weeks of land combat. It launched the Italian Campaign.

Hitler Delivers Address at Platterhof

May 26 1944

He not only recapped his entire life's work in a relatively honest way, but he did so in a private setting, clear of the public eye. In this speech Hitler offered a somewhat disjointed recollection of all that was most important to him by 1944.

he chose to talk deeply and thoroughly on the topics of race, folk, nation, German history, and the future National Socialist military and educational systems. Hitler admitted that the German people were multiracial, and that this had made them a strong people.

He indirectly confessed to Soviet superiority over the Nazi system

Hitler survives an assassination attempt

July 20, 1944

Hitler escapes serious injury when a bomb explodes at his headquarters in Berlin. It is the third assassination attempt against Hitler. A senior officer is blamed for planting the bomb.

Operation Valkyrie

Jul 20 1944

a failed attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the leader of Nazi Germany, inside his "Wolf's Lair" field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.

The plot was the culmination of the efforts of the German Resistance to overthrow the Nazi regime. The failure of both the assassination and the military coup d'état which was planned to follow it led to the arrest of at least 7,000 people by the Gestapo. According to records of the Führer Conferences on Naval Affairs, 4,980 people were executed, resulting in the destruction of the resistance movement in Germany.

Hitler Agrees to Withdraw Forces from the Ardennes

Jan 7 1945

The majority of the German force executed a successful fighting withdrawal and escaped the battle area, although the fuel situation had become so dire that most of the German armor had to be abandoned. On 7 January 1945, Hitler agreed to withdraw forces from the Ardennes, including the SS panzer divisions, thus ending all offensive operations.

Hitler orders the destruction of the Germany's infrastructure

March 19, 1945

Hitler decides that since Germany has lost the war, the country does not deserve to survive. He orders the destruction of the railroads, highways, and other important features of German industry, but the order is not obeyed.

Hitler's end

April 12 1945

American President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s death gives Hitler hope of negotiating a peace with the US and the United Kingdom before Soviet troops overrun Germany. Hitler makes his last stand in the Füherebunker in Berlin. He refuses to surrender, believing the remaining German forces would be able to push the advancing Soviets back.

Hitler last will

April 29 1945

Hitler dictates his will and a political statement to his private secretary, Traudl Junge. Hitler marries his long-time mistress Eva Braun.

Hitler's Death

April 30 1945

Hitler commits suicide in the Führerbunker, simultaneously biting into a cyanide capsule while shooting himself in the head with the same pistol his niece Geli Raubal used to kill herself. Braun also kills herself by taking cyanide.
After Hitlers death the two are put into a bomb crater, dowsed with gasoline and cremated by Führerbunker aides.